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Chapter 10: Structured and Creative Problem Solving in Groups. Decision Making and Problem Solving. Problem Solving A process in which groups analyze a problem and develop a plan of action for solving the problem or reducing its harmful effects. Decision Making

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Chapter 10: Structured and Creative Problem Solving in Groups

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Chapter 10 structured and creative problem solving in groups l.jpg

Chapter 10: Structured and Creative Problem Solving in Groups

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Decision Making and Problem Solving

Problem Solving

A process in which groups analyze a problem and develop a plan of action for solving the problem or reducing its harmful effects

Decision Making

-Passing judgment on an issue under consideration

-The act of reaching a conclusion

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Decision-Making Methods

  • Voting– A majority or two-thirds support a group decision

  • Consensus - All group members agree to support a group decision

  • Authority Rule - A single person or someone outside the group makes the final decision, with or without recommendations from the group

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Decision-Making Styles

  • Rational: “I’ve carefully considered all the issues.”

  • Intuitive: “It feels like the right thing to do.”

  • Dependent: “If you think it’s okay, then I’ll do it.”

  • Avoidant: “I can’t deal with this right now.”

  • Spontaneous: “Let’s do it now and worry about the consequences later.”

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Benefits of Structured Procedures

  • Balanced Participation

  • Effective Conflict Resolution

  • Clear Organization

  • Group Empowerment

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Problem Solving Models

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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TheStandardAgenda

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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The Functional Perspective

Effective preparation requires that members:

- are interested and energetic.

- research and use quality information.

- select an appropriate procedure.

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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The Functional Perspective

Effective procedures require that members:

- understand the issues.

- agree upon solution criteria.

- identify possible solutions.

- review pros and cons.

- select the solution.

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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FunctionalTaskRequirements

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Single-Question Format

Focuses on a single question that, if carefully analyzed and responsibly answered, should provide a solution

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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SingleQuestionFormat

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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The Creative Process

  • The nonjudgmental process of searching for, separating, and connecting unrelated ideas and elements

  • The process of combining these unrelated elements into new ideas

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Creative Methods

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Brainstorming

Brainstorming . . .

  • can generate many ideas in a short period of time.

  • works best when members are comfortable with a freewheeling process.

  • can fail if members are self-conscious and sensitive to implied criticism.

  • can enhance creativity and produce many good ideas.

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Brainstorming Guidelines

  • Sharpen the Focus

    • State the problem clearly.

    • Give members time to think before beginning.

  • For All to See

    • Assign someone to write down the group’s ideas.

    • _____________________________________

  • Number the Ideas

    • ______________________________________

    • ______________________________________

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Brainstorming Guidelines

  • Encourage Creativity

    • _____________________________________

    • _____________________________________

  • All Input, No Put Down

    • Don’t analyze, oppose, or praise the ideas.

    • Keep ideas coming; evaluate after brainstorming.

  • Build and Jump

    • _____________________________________

    • _____________________________________

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Nominal Group Technique (NGT)

  • Maximizes participation while minimizing interpersonal problems associated with group interaction

  • At first, members work individually rather than collectively.

  • Two NGT phases:

    • Idea Generation

    • Idea Evaluation and Voting

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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NGT: Idea Generation Phase

  • Each member writes ideas on paper.

  • Structured sharing of ideas takes place.

  • Recorder writes all ideas on flip chart.

  • Round-robin listing continues until members have no further ideas to share.

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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NGT: Evaluation and Voting Phase

  • Discussion is structured so that each idea receives attention before voting.

  • Members state or clarify support and nonsupport of each idea.

  • Independent voting by ranking ideas.

  • Group decision is a mathematically pooled outcome of individual votes.

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Decreasing Options Technique (The DOT Method)

  • Helps groups reduce and refine a large number of suggestions into a manageable number of ideas

  • Basic Steps:

    • Generate Ideas

    • Post Ideas

    • Sort Ideas

    • Dot the Ideas

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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When to Use DOT

Use DOT when the group . . .

  • is so large that a discussion of many ideas is unworkable.

  • has generated many competing ideas.

  • wants everyone to contribute.

  • wants to restrain dominant members from exerting too much influence.

  • lacks time to discuss multiple or controversial ideas.

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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Problem-Solving Realities

  • Factors affecting the outcome of group decisions:

    • Politics

    • Preexisting preferences

    • Power

  • Use an established decision-makingprocedure to minimize these factors.

©2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.


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