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. ??????????????????????????????????????. ????????. 1. ??????? Reference Work,Reference Service,Reference and Information Service.

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1. ???????????? ????????? ??? 2003?6?16?

2. ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????

3. ???????? 1. ??????? Reference Work,Reference Service,Reference and Information Service

4. “??”:??????????(«??»); “??”:?????(«? ?»)

5. ??????????????????????

6. Martin Sable(1984) ???????????????,?????????????????????????

7. ????????????????? (1)????; (2)?????????; (3)?????????????????????????????

8. ???(50??) ?????????????????,?????????????,?????????????????????????,????????????????????????????

9. ???(1988?) ????????????????,???????????,??????,???????????????????????????????

10. ???? ?? ????

11. ???????????????????,???????????????????????

12. 2. ?????????? Keneth Whittaker:The purpose of reference and information service is to allow information to flow efficiently from information sources to those who need information. Without the librarian bringing source and seeker together, the flow would either never take place at all, or only take place inefficiently”

15. When you need to know, When you want to know, You have right to know, Ask your librarian!

16. (3)??????????????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????

17. 3.??????????

18. (1)the ability to conduct an effective reference interview, (2) knowledge of the core reference materials in a specific discipline, (3)the ability to demonstrate and explain the use of major indexing and abstracting services, (4) the ability to conduct an effective online search interview, (5)the ability to find materials owned by the library,

19. (6)the ability to verify cited reference and identify materials owned by other libraries, (7)the ability to refer users to other libraries, information services, hotlines or agencies, (8)apply library policies and procedures, (9)demonstrate effective interaction with other library divisions.

20. C.Stafford(1990) (1)user/ staff interfacing skills, (2)knowledge of traditional and automated reference sources , (3) data retrieval skills, (4)information technology skill, (5)instructional skills, (6)organizational skills.

21. J. Sherrer(1996): (1) interpersonal skills, (2)knowledge base, (3)analytic and creative thinking skills

22. ????????????????????????????????,?????????,???????????

23. ???? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????

24. ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????

25. ??????????? 1. ????????? Samuel Swett Green, 1837-1918 Worcester Free Public Library 1876?:The desirableness of establishing personal intercourse and relations between librarians and readers in popular libraries

26. Personal relations between librarians and readers,Library Journal,Oct,1876 Instruct the reader in the ways of the library. Assist readers in solving their inquiries. Aid the reader in the selection of good works. Promote the library within the community.

27. 1883??????????????????(??)?????,??????????????????? 1884?,Melvil Dewey???????????????“????”(reference librarian)??? 1891?,“????”?????????????? 1893???,??????????????????

28. 19???20????,?????????????????????? 20????????????????????????? 1914?,LC??????????? 1945?,LC?????????(Congressional Research Service) http://www.arl.org/members.html

29. 2. ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????

30. Definitions of a Reference Transaction Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Services Professionals (1996) Guidelines for Cooperative Reference Service Policy Manuals (1998)

31. Guidelines for Information Services (2000) Guidelines for Liaison Work in Managing Collections and Services (2001) Guidelines for Medical, Legal, and Business Responses (2001) Guidelines for Preparation of a Bibliography (2001) Professional Competencies for Reference and User Services Librarians  (2003)

32. 3. ????????? ??????: (1)??? (2)??? (3)??? (4)??? (5)???

33. 4. ?????????????: ???? ???? ?????? ??????

34. ????????????????

35. (1)??????(tiered service model) ????(general information desk) ?????(reference desk) ????(database room) (2) ??????(research consultation model) (3)“??????”(floating / roving reference librarians) 1. ????????

36. 2. ??????????? ????(???????) ????(???????) ????(????)

37. 3. 3M?? ??(I.G.Mudge)???3M: ??(material): ??(Mind): ??(Method):

38. ???????????

39. 1.????????? digital reference?AskA?virtual reference ?electronic reference?e-reference) ?remote reference?network-based reference? ??????:e-mail reference?web form reference? asynchronous reference ? synchronous reference?live reference?online reference?on-line, real-time reference?Interactive Reference Service

41. ALA???????????(RUSA):“???????????????,???????,???????????????????????,??????????????????????????????????VoIP???????????”

42. 2. ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????????

43. 3. ??????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ??????????

45. 4. ?????? (1)?????(http://www.nlc.gov.cn) (2)????? ?????????????????(http://eservice.digilib.sh.cn/zsdh/)? ???????????????(http://find.ssreader.com/index.asp)?

46. (3)????? ???????:??????????????????????????????????????????http://www.lib.pku.edu.cn/ ???????:Email??????????????????http://www.lib.tsinghua.edu.cn/ ??????????????? http://www.lib.sjtu.edu.cn/

47. (4)????? ??????????? ??????????“??????” http://www.nstl.gov.cn/index.html

48. 5. ????????? (1)??????????? ??: ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????

49. ??: ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????: ???????? ?????

50. (2)??????????? ??: ????????? ???????????? ??????????

51. ??: ???????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????

52. ?????? ??????(Instant Messaging) ????? ?????? ????

53. (3)???????????? ??: ?????,????????? ???,??????????????????????,??????????

54. ?????,?????????????????? ???,???????????????? ??: ???? ?????? ????

55. (4)???????????

56. (5)??????? “??????”(artificial librarian) “????”(virtual assistant)

57. ? ? !

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