# Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes. The heart of many chefs in the kitchen. What Is Culinary Math?. The same as any other math

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## Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes

The heart of many chefs in the kitchen

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### What Is Culinary Math?

• The same as any other math

• Used in the culinary world to make databases and spreadsheets, calculate yield percentages, and figure menu prices, labor costs, business costs, and profit and loss statements

• Involves fractions, ratios, and decimals

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Whole Numbers

• Have a place value that allows us to indicate a large number

• Placed in specific sequence

• Ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.

• Used for subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Fractions

• Break something (whole numbers) into pieces

• Each piece is a part or a fraction of the whole

• The number on top (numerator) is the fraction

• The number on the bottom represents the whole (denominator)

• Used to measure ingredients

• Crucial in scaling recipes

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Calculations

• Common denominator

• Reducing fractions

• Common fraction

• Improper fraction

• Mixed numbers

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Addition/Subtraction

• Common denominator

• Example: ½ + ⅓ = ?

• Multiply the values of numerator and denominator on one side of the equation by the denominator of the other: 1 × 2 = 2, 3 × 2 = 6

• Repeat the process using the original denominator

• 1 × 3 = 3

• 2 × 3 = 6

• Rewrite the equation, add the fractions, come up with the answer

• 2/6 + 3/6 = 5/6

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Multiplication

• Multiplying is a form of adding

• 1 × 1 = 1

• 2 × 3 = 6

• Common denominator is not needed for this operation

• Multiplying whole numbers must be converted into improper fractions

• After practice, this is very easy, as you will do it for every recipe

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Dividing

• Dividing is a form of subtraction

• Mixed numbers converted to improper fractions

• Reverse the numerator and denominator

• Or, invert the fraction

• Example ½ ÷ ¾ must be rewritten as ½ × 4/3 = 4/6

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Reducing Fractions

• The last frame showed an answer of 4/6

• Reducing that fraction would be accomplished by dividing by the largest whole number that divides evenly

• In this case it is 2 (4/6 ÷ 2 = ⅔)

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Ratios

• A fraction is a ratio

• Ratios are used to make work simpler

• Many are standard throughout the industry

• Vinaigrette: 3 parts oil, 1 part vinegar is the most common ratio for this dressing

• A fraction of ½ would be expressed as 1 part to 2 parts: 1-1 would be 50/50 or equal amounts

• 2/3 would be 2 parts to 3 parts

• Basic rice pilaf calls for 1 part rice, 2 parts hot stock, or ½ ratio

• Also, 4 parts to 6 parts can be reduced to 2 parts to 3 parts

• 1 part carrots, 1 part celery, 2 parts onion would be written as 1:1:2

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Decimals and Percents

• Numbers to the left of a decimal point are whole numbers

• Numbers to the right of the decimal point are parts of a whole number

• Numbers to the right are also called decimals and/or fractions

• To perform calculations, you must perform the operations of :

• Decimals to fractions

• Fractions to decimals

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Converting

• To change a fraction to a decimal:1/8 is 1 ÷ 8 = 0.125

• To change a decimal to a fraction:

• .125 × 1000 = 125

• 125/1000

• (125÷ 125)/(1000÷ 125) = 1/8

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Percentages

• A percent (%) is part of 100

• 100 percent means all of something

• A percent less than 100 means how many out of that whole

• 35 percent is 35 parts of 100 parts

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### To Calculate a Percent

• Begin with a decimal

• Move the point two places to the right

• Add the word or symbol for percent (%)

• To use this to calculate, turn it back to a decimal; divide the % by 100 or move the decimal point two places to the left

• Drop the word and/or symbol

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Calculating Food CostApplying Math in the Kitchen

• Recipes is most obvious use

• You will either increase or decrease recipes

• Involves multiplication or division

• May involve fractions, decimals, ratios

• Goal is to generate a profit

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Factors to Account for

• Salaries, rent, utilities, advertising, insurance

• Controlling these costs is crucial

• Cost of specific recipes includes every element needed to serve the dish

• Must have knowledge to convert from one measurement to another

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Yield Percent

• This is commonly a pitfall that is unaccounted for

• It is “how much of an ingredient is available to use” after trimming, cooking, carving

• The lower the yield percent, the more the food actually costs to serve your guests

• “Relatively inexpensive” can be deceiving after preparation

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Food Cost Percentage

• Most kitchens have established food cost percentages

• Total food cost is all the food and drink purchased to produce all the menu items

• Calculated to a predetermined schedule

• Useful as a monitoring tool for the kitchen

• Improves bottom line and efficiency

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

### Food Cost Calculation Formula

• Probably one of the most important formulas in the industry

• Divide the total cost of food by the total sales

• \$50,000 ÷ \$200,000 = 25% food cost

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.