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Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes. The heart of many chefs in the kitchen. What Is Culinary Math?. The same as any other math

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Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes

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Unit 5 culinary math and recipes l.jpg

Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes

The heart of many chefs in the kitchen

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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What Is Culinary Math?

  • The same as any other math

  • Used in the culinary world to make databases and spreadsheets, calculate yield percentages, and figure menu prices, labor costs, business costs, and profit and loss statements

  • Involves fractions, ratios, and decimals

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Whole Numbers

  • Have a place value that allows us to indicate a large number

  • Placed in specific sequence

  • Ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.

  • Used for subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Fractions

  • Break something (whole numbers) into pieces

  • Each piece is a part or a fraction of the whole

  • The number on top (numerator) is the fraction

  • The number on the bottom represents the whole (denominator)

  • Used to measure ingredients

  • Crucial in scaling recipes

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Calculations

  • Common denominator

  • Reducing fractions

  • Common fraction

  • Improper fraction

  • Mixed numbers

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Addition/Subtraction

  • Common denominator

  • Example: ½ + ⅓ = ?

  • Multiply the values of numerator and denominator on one side of the equation by the denominator of the other: 1 × 2 = 2, 3 × 2 = 6

  • Repeat the process using the original denominator

  • 1 × 3 = 3

  • 2 × 3 = 6

  • Rewrite the equation, add the fractions, come up with the answer

  • 2/6 + 3/6 = 5/6

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Multiplication

  • Multiplying is a form of adding

  • 1 × 1 = 1

  • 2 × 3 = 6

  • Common denominator is not needed for this operation

  • Multiplying whole numbers must be converted into improper fractions

  • After practice, this is very easy, as you will do it for every recipe

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Dividing

  • Dividing is a form of subtraction

  • Mixed numbers converted to improper fractions

  • Reverse the numerator and denominator

  • Or, invert the fraction

  • Example ½ ÷ ¾ must be rewritten as ½ × 4/3 = 4/6

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Reducing Fractions

  • The last frame showed an answer of 4/6

  • Reducing that fraction would be accomplished by dividing by the largest whole number that divides evenly

  • In this case it is 2 (4/6 ÷ 2 = ⅔)

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Ratios

  • A fraction is a ratio

  • Ratios are used to make work simpler

  • Many are standard throughout the industry

  • Vinaigrette: 3 parts oil, 1 part vinegar is the most common ratio for this dressing

  • A fraction of ½ would be expressed as 1 part to 2 parts: 1-1 would be 50/50 or equal amounts

  • 2/3 would be 2 parts to 3 parts

  • Basic rice pilaf calls for 1 part rice, 2 parts hot stock, or ½ ratio

  • Also, 4 parts to 6 parts can be reduced to 2 parts to 3 parts

  • 1 part carrots, 1 part celery, 2 parts onion would be written as 1:1:2

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Decimals and Percents

  • Numbers to the left of a decimal point are whole numbers

  • Numbers to the right of the decimal point are parts of a whole number

  • Numbers to the right are also called decimals and/or fractions

  • To perform calculations, you must perform the operations of :

    • Decimals to fractions

    • Fractions to decimals

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Converting

  • To change a fraction to a decimal:1/8 is 1 ÷ 8 = 0.125

  • To change a decimal to a fraction:

    • .125 × 1000 = 125

    • 125/1000

    • (125÷ 125)/(1000÷ 125) = 1/8

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Percentages

  • A percent (%) is part of 100

  • 100 percent means all of something

  • A percent less than 100 means how many out of that whole

  • 35 percent is 35 parts of 100 parts

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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To Calculate a Percent

  • Begin with a decimal

  • Move the point two places to the right

  • Add the word or symbol for percent (%)

  • To use this to calculate, turn it back to a decimal; divide the % by 100 or move the decimal point two places to the left

  • Drop the word and/or symbol

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Calculating Food CostApplying Math in the Kitchen

  • Recipes is most obvious use

  • You will either increase or decrease recipes

  • Involves multiplication or division

  • May involve fractions, decimals, ratios

  • Goal is to generate a profit

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Factors to Account for

  • Salaries, rent, utilities, advertising, insurance

  • Controlling these costs is crucial

  • Cost of specific recipes includes every element needed to serve the dish

  • Must have knowledge to convert from one measurement to another

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Yield Percent

  • This is commonly a pitfall that is unaccounted for

  • It is “how much of an ingredient is available to use” after trimming, cooking, carving

  • The lower the yield percent, the more the food actually costs to serve your guests

  • “Relatively inexpensive” can be deceiving after preparation

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Food Cost Percentage

  • Most kitchens have established food cost percentages

  • Total food cost is all the food and drink purchased to produce all the menu items

  • Calculated to a predetermined schedule

  • Useful as a monitoring tool for the kitchen

  • Improves bottom line and efficiency

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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Food Cost Calculation Formula

  • Probably one of the most important formulas in the industry

  • Divide the total cost of food by the total sales

  • $50,000 ÷ $200,000 = 25% food cost

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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