Dreyfus Affair World War I Between the wars World War II

Dreyfus Affair World War I Between the wars World War II PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Dreyfus Affair 1894-1906. . Chronology. 1894 Captain Alfred Dreyfus convicted by a military court for treason

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Dreyfus Affair World War I Between the wars World War II

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1. Dreyfus Affair World War I Between the wars World War II

2. Dreyfus Affair 1894-1906

3. Chronology 1894 Captain Alfred Dreyfus convicted by a military court for treason – accused of spying for the Germans 1895-99 Sent to a prison island 1896 Bernard Lazare publishes book: The Truth about the Dreyfus Affair 1898 Emile Zola writes “J’Accuse” (“I Accuse”) article criticizing the government’s actions 1899 Dreyfus retried and found guilty 1899 Pardoned by the President 1904 Supreme Court reviews the conviction 1906 Declared innocent

4. Consequences Profoundly divided France Anti-Dreyfus: Monarchists, reactionary nationalists, Church, army Pro-Dreyfus: republicans and socialists Strengthened the Republic Republican parties Socialists Republic associated with human rights, justice Weakened the Church Enabled the separation of Church and State in 1905 Shift in the nature of anti-Semitism from Church based to a right-wing political ideology L’Action française – right-wing political group under Charles Maurras Le Front National (political party) The press becomes an important tool in public opinion Still creates divisions

5. Rise of labor 1896 Confédération générale du travail (CGT) – important union 1905 Unification of two majors socialist parties into the French Section of the Worker’s International (SFIO). SFIO becomes Socialist Party in 1969

6. World War I (1914-1918) France, England, Russia (Allies) vs. Germany, Austria-Hungary (Central Powers) US declares war (1917) and Russia withdraws after Russian Revolution (1918) More deadly technology: Machine guns Poison gas Airplanes Tanks Trench warfare Battle of Verdun – nearly 1,000,000 deaths (Allies and German) over a small piece of territory Philippe Pétain – “victorious” French general of Verdun Battle of the Somme (River) – 1916 1.5 million causalities (both sides)

7. Consequences of World War I CASUALITIES (French) 1.3 million soldiers killed 3 million disabled soldiers (1 million of them permanent invalids) 200,000 civilians killed DESTRUCTION 1 million buildings destroyed much agricultural land made infertile in eastern France loss of 1 million sheep, 1 million head of cattle, 500,000 horses ECONOMIC IMPACT - catastrophic currency devaluation FRENCH GAINS Alsace and Lorraine won back from Germany increased colonial possessions

8. After the war Treaty of Versailles 1919 Return of Alsace-Lorraine Economic cost Demographic cost Influx of foreigners

9. French Demographics

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