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Chapter 3 Financial Planning. Investment products Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF) Credit cards. Financial management and personal development. Learning how to manage money as a life- planning process.

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Chapter 3 Financial Planning

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Chapter 3 financial planning

Chapter 3

Financial Planning

Investment products

Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF)

Credit cards


Chapter 3 financial planning

Financial management and

personal development

  • Learning how to manage money as a life- planning process.

  • Establishing proper values by learning and experiencing how to manage and utilize wealth effectively.

  • Mastering life skills in order to seize opportunities and meet challenges.

  • Equipping oneself for the future to enhance personal development.


Chapter 3 financial planning

What is financial planning?

  • Self-management: money, time and emotion.

  • Financial planning is the process of attaining life goals through properly managing personal finances.

  • For example, set a savings planand invest 25% of savingsin shares for 10 yearsin order to have enough money to buy a flat.

  • Financial planning: life skills to help achieve independence, self-discipline and rationality.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Financial goals at different life stages

Income

Retirement

Pre-retirement

Married with children

Young and married

Young and single

Childhood

Birth

Age

Death


Chapter 3 financial planning

Financial goals at different life stages

Income

Retirement

Pre-retirement

Married with children

Young and married

Young and single

All needs, including financial

needs, are provided by parents

(family).

Childhood

Birth

Age

Death


Chapter 3 financial planning

Financial goals at different life stages

Income

Retirement

Pre-retirement

Married with children

Young and married

Young adults who do not have a

spouse or children.

Low income and financial burden.

Expenses are mainly on

entertainment, social life, luxuries

and personal growth.

Young and single

Childhood

Birth

Age

Death


Chapter 3 financial planning

Financial goals at different life stages

Income

Retirement

Pre-retirement

Married with children

Young couples without children can bear

the burden of household expenses

without difficulty.

The major financial burdens may be rent

or mortgage loan for renovation and

holidays.

Young and married

Young and single

Childhood

Birth

Age

Death


Chapter 3 financial planning

Financial goals at different life stages

Income

Retirement

Pre-retirement

Married with children

The birth of children increases family

expenses, such as medical expenses,

food, toys and clothes.

Educational expenses become a major

family burden.

Young and married

Young and single

Childhood

Birth

Age

Death


Chapter 3 financial planning

Financial goals at different life stages

Income

Retirement

Pre-retirement

Planning for retirement is a key goal, so

people at this stage have to pay attention to

the balance between risk and return.

The MPF accrued benefit must

be considered when calculating retirement

savings.

Married with children

Young and married

Young and single

Childhood

Birth

Age

Death


Chapter 3 financial planning

Financial goals at different life stages

Most people would like to maintain a steady income flow in the

retirement stage.

If they have already accumulated sufficient savings,

their main need is then to preserve the real value of their

investments and savings against the effects of inflation.

Income

Retirement

Pre-retirement

Married with children

Young and married

Young and single

Childhood

Birth

Age

Death


Chapter 3 financial planning

Investment products

  • Bank deposits – Saving money

  • Bonds – Lending money to others

  • Stocks / Shares – Owning part of a business

  • Insurance – Saving/spending money for peace of mind now and financial protection in the future


Chapter 3 financial planning

Investment products

  • Bank deposits

    • Savings deposits. You can withdraw money any time using an ATM card or by going to a bank. Interest is paid on deposits. (e.g. HSBCat 0.001% p.a.*)

    • Fixed/Time deposits. These get a higher interest rate (0.01%-0.5%), but the money cannot be withdrawn before maturity, whichranges from one week to twelve months.

*The interest rate is based on the figure in September 2011.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Investment products

  • Bonds

    • A bond is issued by government or a company to borrow money from the investors, including the general public.

    • Bond holders usually receive interest regularly, and on the maturity date, the capital as well.

    • The interest rate is usually higher than that of bank deposits. (e.g. Hutchison Whampoa International Ltd bonds give 7.45%, with maturity at 24/11/2033)


Chapter 3 financial planning

Investment products

  • Stocks / Shares

    • Shares represent ownership of part of a company. Shareholders are owners and have the right to share in the company’s profits (in the form of dividends).

    • Another source of return is selling them for a higher price than you bought them (i.e. capital gain).


Chapter 3 financial planning

Investment products

  • Insurance

    • Term insurance covers basic protection needs at the lowest premium.

    • There is a savings element in certain types of policies.

    • Some policies make use of investment vehicles to achieve potential long term gains.

    • Risk is highly dependent on the underlying assets.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Background of the MPF System in Hong Kong

  • Ageing population


Chapter 3 financial planning

What is the MPF?

  • The Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF) System, which was implemented in December 2000, aims at providing basic retirement protection for the Hong Kong workforce.

  • All employed persons aged 18 to aged below 65 who fulfill the following conditions are required to enrol in an MPF scheme:

    • those employed or self-employed for 60 days or more (both full-time and part-time employees); or

    • casual employees in the construction or catering industry (even less than 60 days).


Chapter 3 financial planning

What is the MPF?

  • Calculation of MPF contributions:

  • *Relevant Income refers to all payments in monetary terms given to employees, including wages, salary, leave pay, fees, commissions, bonuses, gratuities, perquisite or allowance (including housing allowance or other housing benefits), but excluding severance payments and long service payments as defined under the Employment Ordinance.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Why do I have to start contributing to the MPF as soon as I start working? Why don’t I wait until I earn more? Then I would not mind contributing at bit more. Wouldn’t that be better?


Chapter 3 financial planning

Determining factors for saving and investing

CAPITALis dependent on your personal situation (e.g. income stability, cash flow requirements).

RATE OF RETURNis the most uncertain variable since it can be affected by different factors (e.g. market fluctuations, investment risks).

TIME(i.e. investment period) is relatively easy to plan for and control.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Determining factors for saving and investing

  • If you have limited capital and a short investment period, your rate of return has to be increased.

  • If you have a short investment period and the rate of return cannot be increased, your capital has to be increased.

  • If you have limited capital and the rate of return cannot be increased, you can still achieve your investment goal if you have a long investment period.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Compounding effect in long-term

investments

  • The MPF is a very long-term investment, so the interest added to your capital continues to roll over and generate further interest, i.e. the effect of “Compound Interest”.

*These are assumed rates of return.


Chapter 3 financial planning

“Dollar-cost Averaging” Principle

  • Broadly speaking, the economy and the markets are cyclical in nature.

  • MPF investments adopt the “dollar-cost averaging”, by investing a fixed amount of money in an MPF fund every month at the prevailing market price. When the fund price drops, the same amount of money can buy relatively more fund units, which reduces the average unit cost of your investment.

  • In long term, the impact of short-term market fluctuations will be mitigated.

  • Bear in mind that fund prices can go down as well as up!


Chapter 3 financial planning

Five major types of MPF Funds


Chapter 3 financial planning

Risk and Return Relationship of MPF Funds


Chapter 3 financial planning

Adopting different financial plans according to investment periods

  • Set specific and realistic financial goals regarding time and amount. Your objectives should be realistic and achievable.

  • Different strategies for different time frames:

    • Short term (1-3 years)

    • Medium term (4-7 years)

    • Long term (over 8 years)


Chapter 3 financial planning

Balance between risk and return

Investments with higher potential returns

come with higher potential risks.

Source: Ibbotson Associates, as at June 22, 2010

*Average annualized 10-year rolling returns using monthly data from Jan 1926 to May 2010.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Balance between risk and return

  • The golden rule: Investments with higher potential returns come with higher potential risks, investments with lower potential returns come with lower potential risks.

  • All investment plans must strike a balance between risk and return.

  • Taking MPF investment as an example, you have to consider different factors when choosing MPF funds:

    • (1) Personal factors : e.g. your investment goals, risk tolerance level, and investment period according to your expected retirement age.

    • (2) Fund factors : e.g. the investment objectives, investment instruments, features, risk levels, fees and charges of the MPF funds.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Five elements in financial planning

  • Saving– Meeting emergency needs.

  • Spending– Controlling consumptions in order to meet your savings goal.

  • Protection– Creating a safety net for your loved ones.

  • Investment – Accumulating sufficient wealth to meet your life goals (after you have met your saving and protection needs).

  • Retirement Planning – Invest or saving for your retirement.


Chapter 3 financial planning

Group discussion: Different

perspectives on credit cards

\

  • How do banks attract customers to

  • apply for credit cards?

  • Worksheet


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