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3.1.1 – Range of activities and the roles of the active participant. Learning objectives. To understand the 6 different categories of physical activity. To understand the different roles available in physical activity. To describe individual differences in performance.

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3.1.1 – Range of activities and the roles of the active participant

Learning objectives

To understand the 6 different categories of physical activity.

To understand the different roles available in physical activity.

To describe individual differences in performance.

To understand body somatotyping and its relevance to sporting activities.

To understand the physical and mental demands of exercise.


Range of activities

  • Having a good knowledge and understanding of the different physical activities an individual could do enables you to:
  • Make informed choices about your involvement
  • Make decisions about what sports best suit you
  • Understand the roles you can play within physical activity.

Range of activities

For physical activity to benefit the performer it must be:

  • Appropriate
  • Safe
  • Enjoyable

This will benefit the well being of a person physically, mentally and socially.


Range of activities

Task: Discuss with your partner the benefits of taking part in a range of physical activities.

Develop group and people skills

Widen your experiences

Benefit of taking part in a range of physical activities?

Allows you succeed at something you are good at.

Train you body in various ways

Teaches discipline

Experience different pressures


Benefits from different activities

Task: What does each of the following activity areas involve and what skills would a performer gain from being involved in them?

  • 1. Games activities
  • 2. Gymnastics activities
  • 3. Dance activities
  • 4. Health and Fitness activities
  • 5. Outdoor adventurous activities
  • 6. Athletics activities

Benefits from different activities

1. Games activities:

Develops the skills of outwitting an opponent in a competitive situation. Invasion of opponents area is the aim of the game. Involves teamwork and success is measured by score line.


Benefits from different activities

2. Gymnastics activities:

These activities requires the accurate replication of skills and movements. This is usually demonstrated through a routine which is practiced and rehearsed.


Benefits from different activities

3. Dance activities:

This involves communication and exploration of concepts. Success is measured by choreography, originality and ability to communicate emotions.


Benefits from different activities

4. Health and fitness activities:

These activities require the performer to exercise safely to improve the health and well being of an individual. Success is measured by feelings or bodily shape improvements.


Benefits from different activities

5. Life Saving, Outdoor and Adventurous activities:

These activities require skills of cooperation and communication amongst a small team.

Problem solving and overcoming group challenges are typical to this type of activity.


Benefits from different activities

6. Athletics activities:

These activities require a performer to perform at maximum levels in relation to speed, height or distance. Success is measured by time or distance and can be a personal best or a competition record.


Roles in physical activity

There are many opportunities to become involved in sport and a number of different roles. These include:








School lesson provide teaching of the fundamental skills involved in sport. Clubs can provide training and is a avenue for competitions and tournaments.

Regional and local representation status can be achieved through clubs.



Finally elite level sports people can go on to be selected for international duty.

TASK: Research a sports governing body and how to progress to elite level.



This individual has an important influence on individuals or groups towards achieving a set goals, or behaviour in sport.

They are responsible for preparing a performer in skill acquisition, correct technique, correct physical state or even the correct mental state.


What does better coaching mean for performers?

Higher level of coaching and expertise from grass roots to elite level sport



This is someone who controls the activity; interprets the rules, laws or regulations of the activity including checking the equipment.

TASK: What would you have to do to become a football referee? (Courses etc..)



These individual’s will ensure events run smoothly in order to maximise promotion, participation and high quality performance.

An organiser will oversee an event from start to finish. They are responsible for everything from the timings of the event to equipment and spectator provisions.

i.e. The British Olympic Committee and the London 2012 Olympics



TASK: Research the BOC and investigate the planning that has gone into the 2012 Olympics.



This is the designer or arranger of a staged show or performance.

i.e. ballet or dance performance.


Individual Differences

Individual differences are factors that influence their performance and level of participation. This include age, disability, gender, physique, risks, activity levels, training and the environment.


Age can put limits on what sport an individual may take up. Depending on the size of the club they may have a team at each age group.

e.g. Under 13’s Netball team.


International gymnastics competitions can only be entered by performer over the age of 16.



The ageing process can take effect an individuals ability to perform certain movements. Balancing competition out ensures fairness and safety.

Many older people see the need to stay active to maintain their health.

Young people have a wide variety of opportunity to access sports clubs and teams (Under 10’s, U12’s).

Schools encourage mass participation during PE lesson and extend to after school clubs



A disability can be physical or mental and either temporary or permanent. Sport is encouraged to all regardless of disability. They often compete against similar groups or can be mixed with able-bodied.

Most facilities cater for disabled access.



Males and females are both encouraged to take part in sport. Generally both sexes compete against the same gender to ensure fairness.

Mixed doubles tennis/badminton and show jumping are the only exceptions.

Although most sports are available to both sexes they compete separately. Why?

Safety reasons due to size and strength differences and to ensure fair play.

Tennis has 2 governing bodies for each gender.



Women also enjoy the competitive side of sport and increasing numbers join a gym due to social reasons (i.e. to go with a friend)

Sports such as netball, tennis and dance clubs tend to be more popular with women due to there non-contact nature.


Gender – Hormone/Metabolism differences

Men and women have hormone differences which affects participation.

Hormone changes in women affects the way the female body metabolises carbohydrates and fats.

Male bodies contain higher levels of testosterone. This affects levels of aggression and competitiveness.

During puberty boys become stronger and develop muscles.


Physique/Body Type

There are many differences in an individuals shape and size. The following factors may influence someone’s body shape:

  • Height
  • Weight
  • Body Fat
  • Muscle Size (Girth)
  • Bone Size

Physique and sport choice

Depending on an individuals physique they may be suited to certain sports or play a particular position in a game.

  • Demands of the sport:
  • - Weight requirements
  • Strength through training.
  • Height advantages.
  • Muscle size with bulk


Somatotyping is a method of determining an individuals body shape

Body shape is determined genetically (born with it). It can be improved but not dramatically changed



  • 1. ENDOMORPH (Fat)
    • Wide hips and Narrow shoulders
    • Shot putters, sumo wrestlers.
  • 2. MESOMORPH (Muscular)
    • Narrow hips and broad shoulders
    • Tennis, rugby, sprinters & swimmers
  • 3. ECTOMORPH (Thin)
    • Narrow hips and shoulders
    • High jumper, marathon runner


What somatotype is most suitable for these sports?



Somatotype is important, it may mean that you are better suited to one sport more than another.

Many people are a normal shape – not an extreme body type.

You can be a mixture of body types.



The environment can affect an athletes performance. These includes factors such as climate, terrain and altitude.

Can you think of more environment factors?



Environmental factors






Access to facilities

The provision of outdoor and indoor facilities depends on many factors. Some facilities for sport are not financially or practically possible to have.

The government allocate money to local authorities and lottery money provides additional income to spend on sporting facilities.


Where the facilities for an activity are good there is generally more participants. Good transport links mean people can access the club easily.



Naturally the location of activities are important. Outdoor pursuits centres are common in Wales where there is a big outdoor space. i.e. National park.

Indoor climbing centre are popular in cities as it is inexpensive compared to a real climbing trip.


Risk and challenge

Each sporting environment has different risks that need to be managed. Assessing and controlling the risk to performers is vital.

TASK: 2 minutes. Discuss the factors to consider and report back to the group.

Compete in the correct weight, age or skill category.

Leaders should be trained to deal with problems.

Take first aid kit and appropriate clothing

Equipment should be checked.


Activity levels

Different activities will have different effects and place differing demands on the body.

What factors will affect performer’s activity levels?

Motivation levels



Willingness to train hard

Determination or attitude

Time to recover



Training and the time spend improve ability or skill level will affect an individuals performance.

- Professionals train daily as that is their job.

- Amateurs fit training in around their full-time employment.

Amateur athletes often receive funding streams from agencies such as The National Lottery.


The demands of performance

The demands of performance have both a mental and physical effect on the body.







TASK: 5 minutes. Discuss how these factors would affect a tennis player. Are they positive or negative?


The demands of performance


When fatigue and stress occur this will effect the skill level of the performer. Stressors may be in the form of the following factors:

• Personality/emotions

• Tension/anxiety

• Aggression

• Motivation/arousal

• Boredom/tedium

• Feedback/criticism.


The demands of performance

The personality of a performer will affect how a performer copes with the level of stress felt during activity. Introverts and extroverts with react in very different ways.

Extroverts will often shout and be loud and deal with pressure openly.

Introverts perfer to remain quite and deal with the pressure inside.


The demands of performance

Pressure/stress – Playing in front of a crowd either as an individual, with a partner or as part of a team can be hugely stressful.

Stress can also be felt when performing against different qualities of opposition and at varying levels of competition.

Elite athletes can often deal with pressure better than novices.


Summary Questions:

Can you answer the following questions?

Success Criteria:

All pupils should be able to answer a minimum of 2 questions.

Most pupils should be able to answer 3-4 questions.

Some pupils should be able to answer all the questions.


Summary Questions:

Name the 6 categories of activities available to a performer and the type of skills they encourage.

What roles are there in sport an individual could undertake?

Summarise the individual differences that impact on participation in sport?

Describe the 3 different body somatotypes?

What environmental factors could affect a performer?

Name some fatigue/stress demands of performance on an individual.