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CANCER. Epidemiology Updated January 2011 Source: Cancer: New Registrations and Deaths 2008 . retrieved Jan 25 th 2012 from Ministry of Health. May 2011 Cancer: New Registrations and Deaths http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/indexmh/cancer-reg-deaths-2008. Definition of Cancer.

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cancer
CANCER
  • Epidemiology
  • Updated January 2011
  • Source: Cancer: New Registrations and Deaths 2008. retrieved Jan 25th 2012 from

Ministry of Health. May 2011 Cancer: New Registrations and Deaths http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/indexmh/cancer-reg-deaths-2008

definition of cancer
Definition of Cancer
  • Large group of diseases
  • Uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
  • Interrupts normal cell functioning
  • Neoplasm – A new growth of tissue that serves no physiological function
definitions
Definitions
  • Benign – harmless, non-cancerous
  • Malignant - cancerous
  • Biopsy – microscopic examination
  • Metastasis – process by which cancer spreads from one area to another
  • Mutant cells - cells that differ in form, quality, or function from normal cells
  • Carcinogens – cancer causing agents
causes
Causes
  • Hereditary risk
  • Acquired risk (environmental)

Environmental – Lifestyle

More than 3/4s of cancers occur in people aged 55 yrs and over

Lifetime risk –probability over time

Relative risk –relationship between risk factors and a particular cancer

Tobacco Use

slide5

Diet, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, over consumption of alcohol, tobacco use, stress

  • Infectious agents, certain medical treatments, excessive sun exposure, exposure to certain chemicals
  • Viruses
  • Hormones
  • Radiation
genetic risks
Genetic Risks
  • About 5% of cancers thought to be genetic
  • Oncogenes – cancer causing genes
  • Breast, stomach, colon, prostate, uterus, ovaries & lungs appear to run in families
  • Some blood cancers also have a familial link
  • Familial however does not mean genetic
occupational environmental risks
Occupational & Environmental Risks
  • Asbestos
  • Mining inhalation of certain fibres
  • Chemicals, certain dyes, herbicides, pesticides
  • Ionizing radiation – x-rays, UV
  • Non IR - radio waves, cell phones, microwaves computer screens, TVs etc etc
  • Chemicals in food – sodium nitrate
infectious diseases
Infectious Diseases
  • Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and liver cancer
  • HPV – Human Papillomavirus and cervical cancer
types of cancers
Types of Cancers
  • Carcinomas – epithelial tissues covering body surfaces and lining most body cavities are the most common sites for cancers. They affect the outer layer of skin and mouth as well as mucous membranes
  • Spread through the blood & lymphatic systems
  • Form solid tumours
contd
Contd
  • Sarcomas – occur in the middle layer of tissues - bones, muscles and general connective tissue
  • Spread primarily via the blood in the early stages of disease
  • Less common but more virulent than carcinomas
  • Form solid tumours
contd1
Contd
  • Lymphomas – develop in the lymphatic system, and spread this way
  • Also form solid tumours

Leukaemias

  • Cancers of the blood forming regions of the body, particularly bone marrow and spleen
  • Non-solid tumours
  • Characterised by an abnormal increase in WBC
detecting cancer
Detecting Cancer
  • Screening Programmes
  • Earlier diagnosis the better the prospect
  • X-Rays
  • Ultrasound
  • Endoscopy
  • MRI
  • CT
  • Lab Tests
cancer treatments
Cancer Treatments
  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Alternative treatment options
slide14
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In New Zealand

Cancer remained the leading cause of death in NZ, for both males & females accounting for 29% of deaths

Main causes of cancer deaths for males

Lung

Colorectal

Prostate

Main causes of cancer deaths for females

Lung

Breast

Colorectal

leading cause of death
Leading Cause of Death
  • Lung cancer accounted for the most deaths in 2008, 19% of all cancer deaths, followed by colorectal then prostate & breast
  • Main causes of cancer deaths for males
  • Lung (19.0%)
  • Colorectal
  • prostate
  • Main causes of cancer deaths for females
  • Lung (19%)
  • Breast
  • Colorectal
other facts
Other facts

-NZ Cancer Registry set up in 1948

-Cancer Registry Act 1993

-Cancer Registry Regulations 1994

-Cancer Control Strategy 2003

-Since 2008 MoH has led a systematic & coordinated approach through a national programme involving DHBs

-Bowel cancer projected to increase by 15% for males and 19% for females in 2016

continued
Continued
  • New Zealand’s mortality rate due to cancer is high by international standards
  • NZ – 3rd highest bowel cancer death rate in OECD for women and 6th for men
references
References
  • Cancer: New Registrations and Deaths 2008. retrieved Jan 25th 2012 from Ministry of Health. May 2011 Cancer: New Registrations and Deaths http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/indexmh/cancer-reg-deaths-2008
  • Donatelle, R. J. (2011) Health: The basics.(Green ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education
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