numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system
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Numerical Modeling of a Salinity Intrusion Barrier Saltwater Intrusion Prevention System. Developed Through a Cooperative Research & Development Agreement Patented Technology owned by Saltwater Separation, LLC. Saltwater Separation, LLC Team E. Robert Kendziorski

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numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Numerical Modeling of a Salinity Intrusion BarrierSaltwater Intrusion Prevention System

Developed Through a

Cooperative Research & Development Agreement

Patented Technology owned by Saltwater Separation, LLC

ERDC-CHL Team

Jose E. Sanchez, P.E.

Robert Bernard, PhD

[email protected]

Phu Luong, PhD

[email protected]

slide2

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

OUTLINE

  • Challenges
  • Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA)
  • US Army Engineer Research and Development Center – Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (ERDC-CHL)
  • PAR3D
  • Miraflores Locks
  • Simulation basis
  • Experiments
  • Results
  • Recommendations and Conclusions
slide3

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

CHALLENGES

  • Miraflores Lake brackish condition
    • Current estimates of 1ppt concentration (ERDC-CHL 2000 study)
    • No salinity intrusion barrier or system in place
    • Quality issues for some uses
  • Increased traffic demand
    • Current operations general range between 30 and 40 ships per day
    • Future expectations of up to 53 ships per day
  • Unsteady flow in the downstream lock approach conditions during emptying cycle
    • Inconsistent navigation condition (1 out of 30 may impact the lock structure, as per WPSI)
  • Possible Canal expansion
slide4

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

CRADA

  • What is it?
    • Cooperative Research and Development Agreement
  • Benefits
    • Allows USACE to partner with other organizations
    • Shares information, knowledge, discoveries
  • Parties involved
    • US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory
    • Water Processing Systems Incorporated
slide5

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

ERDC-CHL

  • Expertise
    • 75 years experience in physical and numerical hydraulic modeling
    • 250 personnel
      • 140 Engineers and Scientists
      • 56 with PhDs
      • 60 with MS degrees
  • Resources
    • Many numerical models available
      • PAR3D chosen
    • High Performance Computing Center on site
      • Among the top 10 in the world
slide6

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

PAR3D

  • What is it?
    • 3-dimensional incompressible flow numerical model
    • Accommodates
      • Deforming grids
      • Free-surface displacement
      • Multiple processors
    • Capabilities include
      • Heat and dissolved-gas transfer and transport
      • Salinity transport
      • Temperature stratification and mixing
      • Sediment and biomass transport (with oxygen demand)
      • Turbulence modeling including buoyancy
      • Flow driven by bubble plumes and mechanical mixers
slide7

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

PAR3D (CONTINUED)

  • Governing equations
    • Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow
    • K-Epsilon turbulence model
  • Pneumatic injection specialty
  • Published in “Applied Mathematical Modeling”
    • Independent peer review for application to independent experimental data, 2000
  • Previous applications
    • Taylorsville Lake intake structure, internal flow in the structure
    • WES Riprap Test Facility, open-channel flow around a bend
    • McCook Reservoir (in design), pneumatic bubble plume application
slide8

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

MIRAFLORES LOCKS

INLAND SIDE

OCEAN SIDE

slide9

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

MIRAFLORES LOCKS

model grid area

slide10

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

INITIAL SIMULATION BASIS

  • Average depth (50-ft)
    • No tidal action
  • No vessel
  • Approximate bathymetry (el. –50ft)
    • Lock exit structure modeled
    • Channel width approximated (110 to 220-ft)
  • Starting salinity
    • 10 ppt DS of miter gates (1000-ft stretch)
slide11

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

MODEL

Pacific Ocean

Guide wall

Miter gates

  • Total length = 1000-ft
  • 110-ft wide
  • 50-ft deep

Wing wall

100-ft

slide12

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Model Simulations

  • Existing conditions without salinity barriers
    • During emptying cycle
      • Simplified lock release (steady state outflow)
      • 15 min cycle with 3kcfs flow rate
    • 20 min after emptying cycle ends (re-stratification)
  • Effects of bubble curtains
    • With/without pneumatic injection
  • Bubble curtain setup
    • 1 bubbler 400-ft from miter gates (WPSI feasibility report)
    • 2 bubble curtains (100 & 200-ft from each other)
    • 4 bubble curtains (100-ft from each other)
    • 8 bubble curtains (50-ft from each other)
  • Fresh water injection rates with 4 bubble curtains
slide13

3kcfs injection, after 15 min emptying cycle

Water injection

(50-ft from miter gates)

no injection, 20 min after cycle

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

EXISTING CONDITIONS:

slide14

563 cfs fresh water injection – 3hr simulation

water injection

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

water injection

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

563 cfs fresh water injection, 1100 scfm/curtain – 3hr simulation

Water injection

(50-ft from miter gates)

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

BUBBLE CURTAINS vs. NO CURTAINS:

slide15

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

FOUR BUBBLE CURTAINS:1100 scfm/curtain, 563cfs fresh water, 3hr animation (10min intervals)

water injection

slide16

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

FOUR BUBBLE CURTAINS:1100 scfm/curtain, 563cfs fresh water, 9hr simulation

water injection

slide17

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Water injection rates (4 bubble curtain design)

* Time reflects salinity concentration at 100-ft from miter gates only. Lower concentrations were indicated further downstream sooner.

slide18

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

ADDITIONAL SIMULATION BASIS

  • Tidal fluctuations
    • Max depth – 64ft
    • Min depth – 44ft
  • Vessel exiting lock chamber
    • With propeller action
    • Without propeller action
  • Stratified salinity distribution
slide19

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Tidal fluctuation comparison

slide20

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Ship and propeller mixing characteristics

  • Ship Model
    • Dense grid
      • 2000-ft channel
      • Starting at US miter gates
      • Divided into 100-ft cells
      • Depth: 50 ft
    • Panamax type ship
      • 965’l x 106’w x 39.5’d (centered in channel – exiting lock chamber)
      • 26-ft diameter propeller helix
      • 20,000 hp
    • Simulation
      • Initial conditions
        • 5 ppt starting 200-ft downstream of ship
        • 1 ppt inside of lock chamber
      • 563 cfs fresh water injection 100-ft from DS miter gates
      • 4 bubble curtain design
slide21

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Ship and propeller mixing characteristics

Ship only

Pacific Ocean

Stern

Bow

Ship

< 1 ppt

Ship with motor in operation

< 1 ppt

563 cfs fresh water injection, 1100 scfm/curtain – 1hr simulation

Initial condition: 5 ppt starting 200-ft downstream of ship

slide22

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Recommendations and Conclusions

  • Conclusions
    • Best design tested – 4 bubble plumes at 1100 standard cfm/location with minimum 563 cfs fresh water inflow
    • More air flow does not improve performance
    • More air injection points does not improve performance
    • Higher water flow rates do improve performance, up to a certain limit
    • Tidal fluctuations have minimal impacts on performance
    • Ship and propeller have minimal impacts on performance
  • Recommendations
    • 2D physical tests for salinity transfer at bubble plumes
    • Experiments to study downstream conditions during emptying cycle (turbulent currents – baseline conditions)
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