Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system
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Numerical Modeling of a Salinity Intrusion Barrier Saltwater Intrusion Prevention System. Developed Through a Cooperative Research & Development Agreement Patented Technology owned by Saltwater Separation, LLC. Saltwater Separation, LLC Team E. Robert Kendziorski

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Numerical Modeling of a Salinity Intrusion Barrier Saltwater Intrusion Prevention System

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Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Numerical Modeling of a Salinity Intrusion BarrierSaltwater Intrusion Prevention System

Developed Through a

Cooperative Research & Development Agreement

Patented Technology owned by Saltwater Separation, LLC

  • Saltwater Separation, LLC Team

  • E. Robert Kendziorski

  • [email protected]

  • 949.677.1991

  • Charles H. Tate, P.E.

  • [email protected]

  • 601.218.2173

ERDC-CHL Team

Jose E. Sanchez, P.E.

Robert Bernard, PhD

[email protected]

Phu Luong, PhD

[email protected]


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

OUTLINE

  • Challenges

  • Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA)

  • US Army Engineer Research and Development Center – Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (ERDC-CHL)

  • PAR3D

  • Miraflores Locks

  • Simulation basis

  • Experiments

  • Results

  • Recommendations and Conclusions


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

CHALLENGES

  • Miraflores Lake brackish condition

    • Current estimates of 1ppt concentration (ERDC-CHL 2000 study)

    • No salinity intrusion barrier or system in place

    • Quality issues for some uses

  • Increased traffic demand

    • Current operations general range between 30 and 40 ships per day

    • Future expectations of up to 53 ships per day

  • Unsteady flow in the downstream lock approach conditions during emptying cycle

    • Inconsistent navigation condition (1 out of 30 may impact the lock structure, as per WPSI)

  • Possible Canal expansion


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

CRADA

  • What is it?

    • Cooperative Research and Development Agreement

  • Benefits

    • Allows USACE to partner with other organizations

    • Shares information, knowledge, discoveries

  • Parties involved

    • US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory

    • Water Processing Systems Incorporated


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

ERDC-CHL

  • Expertise

    • 75 years experience in physical and numerical hydraulic modeling

    • 250 personnel

      • 140 Engineers and Scientists

      • 56 with PhDs

      • 60 with MS degrees

  • Resources

    • Many numerical models available

      • PAR3D chosen

    • High Performance Computing Center on site

      • Among the top 10 in the world


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

PAR3D

  • What is it?

    • 3-dimensional incompressible flow numerical model

    • Accommodates

      • Deforming grids

      • Free-surface displacement

      • Multiple processors

    • Capabilities include

      • Heat and dissolved-gas transfer and transport

      • Salinity transport

      • Temperature stratification and mixing

      • Sediment and biomass transport (with oxygen demand)

      • Turbulence modeling including buoyancy

      • Flow driven by bubble plumes and mechanical mixers


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

PAR3D (CONTINUED)

  • Governing equations

    • Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow

    • K-Epsilon turbulence model

  • Pneumatic injection specialty

  • Published in “Applied Mathematical Modeling”

    • Independent peer review for application to independent experimental data, 2000

  • Previous applications

    • Taylorsville Lake intake structure, internal flow in the structure

    • WES Riprap Test Facility, open-channel flow around a bend

    • McCook Reservoir (in design), pneumatic bubble plume application


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

MIRAFLORES LOCKS

INLAND SIDE

OCEAN SIDE


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

MIRAFLORES LOCKS

model grid area


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

INITIAL SIMULATION BASIS

  • Average depth (50-ft)

    • No tidal action

  • No vessel

  • Approximate bathymetry (el. –50ft)

    • Lock exit structure modeled

    • Channel width approximated (110 to 220-ft)

  • Starting salinity

    • 10 ppt DS of miter gates (1000-ft stretch)


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

MODEL

Pacific Ocean

Guide wall

Miter gates

  • Total length = 1000-ft

  • 110-ft wide

  • 50-ft deep

Wing wall

100-ft


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Model Simulations

  • Existing conditions without salinity barriers

    • During emptying cycle

      • Simplified lock release (steady state outflow)

      • 15 min cycle with 3kcfs flow rate

    • 20 min after emptying cycle ends (re-stratification)

  • Effects of bubble curtains

    • With/without pneumatic injection

  • Bubble curtain setup

    • 1 bubbler 400-ft from miter gates (WPSI feasibility report)

    • 2 bubble curtains (100 & 200-ft from each other)

    • 4 bubble curtains (100-ft from each other)

    • 8 bubble curtains (50-ft from each other)

  • Fresh water injection rates with 4 bubble curtains


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

3kcfs injection, after 15 min emptying cycle

Water injection

(50-ft from miter gates)

no injection, 20 min after cycle

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

EXISTING CONDITIONS:


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

563 cfs fresh water injection – 3hr simulation

water injection

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

water injection

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

563 cfs fresh water injection, 1100 scfm/curtain – 3hr simulation

Water injection

(50-ft from miter gates)

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

BUBBLE CURTAINS vs. NO CURTAINS:


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

FOUR BUBBLE CURTAINS:1100 scfm/curtain, 563cfs fresh water, 3hr animation (10min intervals)

water injection


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

bubbler

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

FOUR BUBBLE CURTAINS:1100 scfm/curtain, 563cfs fresh water, 9hr simulation

water injection


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Water injection rates (4 bubble curtain design)

* Time reflects salinity concentration at 100-ft from miter gates only. Lower concentrations were indicated further downstream sooner.


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

ADDITIONAL SIMULATION BASIS

  • Tidal fluctuations

    • Max depth – 64ft

    • Min depth – 44ft

  • Vessel exiting lock chamber

    • With propeller action

    • Without propeller action

  • Stratified salinity distribution


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Tidal fluctuation comparison


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Ship and propeller mixing characteristics

  • Ship Model

    • Dense grid

      • 2000-ft channel

      • Starting at US miter gates

      • Divided into 100-ft cells

      • Depth: 50 ft

    • Panamax type ship

      • 965’l x 106’w x 39.5’d (centered in channel – exiting lock chamber)

      • 26-ft diameter propeller helix

      • 20,000 hp

    • Simulation

      • Initial conditions

        • 5 ppt starting 200-ft downstream of ship

        • 1 ppt inside of lock chamber

      • 563 cfs fresh water injection 100-ft from DS miter gates

      • 4 bubble curtain design


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Ship and propeller mixing characteristics

Ship only

Pacific Ocean

Stern

Bow

Ship

< 1 ppt

Ship with motor in operation

< 1 ppt

563 cfs fresh water injection, 1100 scfm/curtain – 1hr simulation

Initial condition: 5 ppt starting 200-ft downstream of ship


Numerical modeling of a salinity intrusion barrier saltwater intrusion prevention system

Salinity Intrusion Barrier System

Recommendations and Conclusions

  • Conclusions

    • Best design tested – 4 bubble plumes at 1100 standard cfm/location with minimum 563 cfs fresh water inflow

    • More air flow does not improve performance

    • More air injection points does not improve performance

    • Higher water flow rates do improve performance, up to a certain limit

    • Tidal fluctuations have minimal impacts on performance

    • Ship and propeller have minimal impacts on performance

  • Recommendations

    • 2D physical tests for salinity transfer at bubble plumes

    • Experiments to study downstream conditions during emptying cycle (turbulent currents – baseline conditions)


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