Functionalism

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Functionalism

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1. Functionalism Chapter 11

3. Early U.S. Psychology In his 1929 APA Presidential Address, James McKeen Cattell described the history of psychology before the 1880s “would be as short as a book on snakes in Ireland since the time of St. Patrick. Insofar as psychologists are concerned, America was then like heaven, for there was not a damned soul.” Assumed psychology = Experimental Psychology However, experimental psychology grew out of nonexperimental psychology

4. Early U.S. Psychology Stage One: Moral and Mental Philosophy (1640-1776) Psychology concerned matters of the soul Psychology was combined with religious indoctrination. Psychology included ethics, divinity and philosophy Samuel Johnson, first president of Columbia University, took Locke’s ideas and wrote a book containing such topics as child psychology, introspection, the nature of knowledge, etc. -John Locke’s Essay had a widespread influence. -”Psychology existed for the sake of logic, and logic for the sake of God.”-John Locke’s Essay had a widespread influence. -”Psychology existed for the sake of logic, and logic for the sake of God.”

5. Early U.S. Psychology Stage Two: Intellectual Philosophy (1776-1886) Psychology influenced by the Scottish Common Sense Philosophers (Thomas Reid) The existence of God need not be proved because one’s personal feelings could be trusted. U.S. Psychology textbook written by Noah Porter, The Human Intellect: With an Introduction upon Psychology and the Soul (1868) Psychology is the science of the human soul -Common sense philosophy taught that morality is based on self-evident intuitions. -Psychology leaving the realm of philosophy and theology.-Common sense philosophy taught that morality is based on self-evident intuitions. -Psychology leaving the realm of philosophy and theology.

6. Early U.S. Psychology Stage Three: The U.S. Renaissance (1886-1896) Psychology completely emancipated from religion and philosophy and became an empirical science. American Journal of Psychology began publishing 1887 James’ Principles of Psychology (1890) Psychology that was adaptable with evolutionary thinking. People adapt to their environments -Since early days America had emphasized individuality, practicality, and adaptation to the environment. -These ideas were incorporated into US psychology. -Since early days America had emphasized individuality, practicality, and adaptation to the environment. -These ideas were incorporated into US psychology.

7. Early U.S. Psychology Stage Four: U.S. Functionalism (1896-Present) Functionalism: Under the influence of Darwin, the school of functionalism stressed the role of consciousness and behavior in adapting to the environment. An interest in the function of the mind rather than its contents. Combined science, concern for practicality, emphasis on the individual, and evolutionary theory. -Functionalism was distinctly different from Structuralism. -Assumptions concerning the mind from evolutionary theory. -Goal was how the mind and behavior aid in the organism’s adjustment to the environment. -Research tools included anything included anything informative, including introspection, the study of animals, and the study of mentally ill.-Functionalism was distinctly different from Structuralism. -Assumptions concerning the mind from evolutionary theory. -Goal was how the mind and behavior aid in the organism’s adjustment to the environment. -Research tools included anything included anything informative, including introspection, the study of animals, and the study of mentally ill.

8. Characteristics of Functionalistic Psychology Opposed search for elements of consciousness Function of mind (“is for”), not static description (“is”) Psychology practical science, not pure science Research on animals, children, and abnormals Needs (motivation) need to be understood before behavior could be understood Mental processes and behavior were interesting Differences more interesting than similarities All influenced by Darwin -Unlike Structuralism, Functionalism had no formal leader or absolute methodology. -Functionalism distinctly different from structuralism or behaviorism.-Unlike Structuralism, Functionalism had no formal leader or absolute methodology. -Functionalism distinctly different from structuralism or behaviorism.

9. William James Born in NYC (1842) Brother Henry James was famous novelist. Attended school in Switzerland, France, Germany, and England Excelled at painting, but father threatened suicide if he became an artist. Went to medical school at Harvard (1864) In the middle of medical school he went on an expedition to Brazil (show Darwin was wrong!) Seasick constantly and contracted smallpox, health deteriorated. -James, William (1842-1910) Was instrumental in the founding of functionalistic psychology. James emphasized the function of both consciousness and behavior. For him, the only valid criterion for evaluating a theory, thought, or act is whether it works. In keeping with his pragmatism, he claimed that psychology needs to employ both scientific and nonscientific procedures. Similarly, on the individual level, sometimes one must believe in free will and at other times in determinism. -Bridged the gap between European and American psychology. -His ideas weren’t fully developed enough to suggest a new school of psychology, but they definitely led to functionalism.-James, William (1842-1910) Was instrumental in the founding of functionalistic psychology. James emphasized the function of both consciousness and behavior. For him, the only valid criterion for evaluating a theory, thought, or act is whether it works. In keeping with his pragmatism, he claimed that psychology needs to employ both scientific and nonscientific procedures. Similarly, on the individual level, sometimes one must believe in free will and at other times in determinism. -Bridged the gap between European and American psychology. -His ideas weren’t fully developed enough to suggest a new school of psychology, but they definitely led to functionalism.

10. William James Went to Germany to bathe in mineral springs While there he read Wundt Agreed that it was time for psychology to become a science. Finished medical school (1869) Created psychology demonstration laboratory at Harvard (1875) Published Principles of Psychology (1890) Psychology: Briefer Course (1892) -“I embraced the medical profession a couple of months ago. My first impression is that there is much humbug there-in, & that, with the exception of surgery in which something positive is sometimes accomplished, a doctor does more by the moral effect of his presence on the patient & family, than by anything else. He also extracts money from them.” -Along with the manuscript for Principles, James attached a note: -”No one could be more disgusted than I at the sight of the book. No subject is worth being treated of in 1000 pages. Had I ten years more, I could rewrite it in 500; but as it stands it is this or nothing-a loathsome, distended, tumefied, bloated, dropsical mass, testifying to nothing but two facts: 1st, that there is no such thing as a science of psychology, and 2nd, that W. J. is an incapable.”-“I embraced the medical profession a couple of months ago. My first impression is that there is much humbug there-in, & that, with the exception of surgery in which something positive is sometimes accomplished, a doctor does more by the moral effect of his presence on the patient & family, than by anything else. He also extracts money from them.” -Along with the manuscript for Principles, James attached a note: -”No one could be more disgusted than I at the sight of the book. No subject is worth being treated of in 1000 pages. Had I ten years more, I could rewrite it in 500; but as it stands it is this or nothing-a loathsome, distended, tumefied, bloated, dropsical mass, testifying to nothing but two facts: 1st, that there is no such thing as a science of psychology, and 2nd, that W. J. is an incapable.”

11. William James James’s Crisis Pragmatism: The belief that usefulness is the best criterion for determining the validity of an idea. Radical Empiricism: James's contention that all consistent categories of human experience are worthy of study, whether or not they are amenable to the methods of science. Both a scientific and a philosophical approach must be used to study humans. If you can’t study something (such as free will) you shouldn’t necessarily throw it out. -James fell into a deep depression after returning from Germany. -He had read much materialistic philosophy which implied a lack of free-will. -If no free-will, then his depression is predetermined and there is no reason to do anything about it. -Further, Darwin’s view of evolution included variation, natural selection, etc. but no hope, freedom, or choice. -Eventually read an essay on free-will which helped him. -“My first act of free will shall be to believe in free will.” -While using the scientific method in psychology it is necessary to assume determinism in human behavior. -Many different methods can be used to understand humans including science, introspection, anecdotes.-James fell into a deep depression after returning from Germany. -He had read much materialistic philosophy which implied a lack of free-will. -If no free-will, then his depression is predetermined and there is no reason to do anything about it. -Further, Darwin’s view of evolution included variation, natural selection, etc. but no hope, freedom, or choice. -Eventually read an essay on free-will which helped him. -“My first act of free will shall be to believe in free will.” -While using the scientific method in psychology it is necessary to assume determinism in human behavior. -Many different methods can be used to understand humans including science, introspection, anecdotes.

12. William James Stream of Consciousness Stream of Consciousness: Term for the way James thought the mind worked. James described the mind as consisting of an ever-changing stream of interrelated, purposive thoughts. Directly contradicts notion of elements that could be isolated from each other.

13. William James Stream of Consciousness Consciousness is personal Reflects experiences of the person Universal elements cannot exist Consciousness is consciousness and cannot be divided up for analysis Consciousness is constantly changing Heraclitus, you can never step into the same stream twice One can never have the same idea twice because the stream of consciousness that provided the context for the idea is always changing. Consciousness is selective Some elements entering consciousness are selected for further processing, some are not. Sounds familiar as the premise of Voluntarism Consciousness is functional Its purpose is to aid the individual adapt to the environment.

14. William James Habits and Instincts Much human and animal behavior is guided by instinct. “…every creature likes its own ways, and takes to following them as a matter of course.” Habits: Those learned patterns of behavior that James and others believed were vital for the functioning of society (instinct-like patterns of behavior). Repetition causes the same neural pathways to, from, and within the brain to become more entrenched, making it easier for energy to pass through those pathways. -Instincts -Always have a function, a survival value -Habits -*Habits are instinct-like patterns of behavior* -Habits are functional because they simplify the movements required to achieve a result, increase the accuracy of behavior, reduce fatigue, and diminish the need to consciously attend to performed actions. -Habits allow society to exist. -Habits keep people working at boring jobs and keep the social strata from mixing.-Instincts -Always have a function, a survival value -Habits -*Habits are instinct-like patterns of behavior* -Habits are functional because they simplify the movements required to achieve a result, increase the accuracy of behavior, reduce fatigue, and diminish the need to consciously attend to performed actions. -Habits allow society to exist. -Habits keep people working at boring jobs and keep the social strata from mixing.

15. William James Habits and Instincts Maxims to follow in order to develop good habits: Place yourself in situations that encourage good habits and discourage bad ones. Do not act contrary to a habit you are trying to develop. Do not attempt to slowly develop new good habits or slowly cease bad habits. Intentions are not enough, actions matter. Force yourself to act in ways which are beneficial to you, even when they are distasteful at first. -Place yourself in situations that encourage good habits and discourage bad ones. -Do not act contrary to a habit you are trying to develop. -”Each lapse is like the letting fall of a ball of string which one is carefully winding up, a single slip undoes more than a great many turns will wind again” -Do not attempt to slowly develop new good habits or slowly cease bad habits. -Intentions are not enough, actions matter. -”There is no more contemptible type of human character than that of the nerveless sentimentalist and dreamer, who spends his life in a weltering sea of sensibility and emotion, but who never does a manly concrete deed.” -Force yourself to act in ways which are beneficial to you, even when they are distasteful at first. -Place yourself in situations that encourage good habits and discourage bad ones. -Do not act contrary to a habit you are trying to develop. -”Each lapse is like the letting fall of a ball of string which one is carefully winding up, a single slip undoes more than a great many turns will wind again” -Do not attempt to slowly develop new good habits or slowly cease bad habits. -Intentions are not enough, actions matter. -”There is no more contemptible type of human character than that of the nerveless sentimentalist and dreamer, who spends his life in a weltering sea of sensibility and emotion, but who never does a manly concrete deed.” -Force yourself to act in ways which are beneficial to you, even when they are distasteful at first.

16. William James The Self Empirical Self: According to James, the self that consists of everything a person can call his or her own. The empirical self consists of the material self (all of one's material possessions), the social self (one's self as known by others), and the spiritual self (all of which a person is conscious). -“In its widest possible sense… a mans Me (empirical self) is the sum total of all he CAN call his, not only his body and his psychic powers, but his clothes, and his house, his wife and children, his ancestors and friends, his reputation and works, his lands and horses, and yacht, and bank account.” -Material Self: body, family, property -Social self: self known by others. -”A man has as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him and carry the image of him in their mind.” -Spiritual self: Everything we think of ourselves as thinkers. -All emotions associated with various states of consciousness. -Associated with the experiences of subjective reality.-“In its widest possible sense… a mans Me (empirical self) is the sum total of all he CAN call his, not only his body and his psychic powers, but his clothes, and his house, his wife and children, his ancestors and friends, his reputation and works, his lands and horses, and yacht, and bank account.” -Material Self: body, family, property -Social self: self known by others. -”A man has as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him and carry the image of him in their mind.” -Spiritual self: Everything we think of ourselves as thinkers. -All emotions associated with various states of consciousness. -Associated with the experiences of subjective reality.

17. William James The Self Self as Knower Self as Knower: According to James, the pure ego that accounts for a person's awareness of his or her empirical self. Similar to older notions such as soul, spirit, or transcendental ego. If the empirical self is the “Me”, then the Self as knower is the “I”. -The self is “…partly known and partly knower, partly object and partly subject.”-The self is “…partly known and partly knower, partly object and partly subject.”

18. William James The Self Self-Esteem Self-Esteem: According to James, how a person feels about himself or herself based on the ratio of successes to attempts. One can increase self-esteem either by accomplishing more or attempting less. -Self esteem is determined by the ratio of things attempted to things achieved. -Self esteem increases if we succeed more or attempt less: -”To give up pretensions is as blessed a relief as to get them gratified.” -”There is the strangest lightness about the heart when one’s nothingness in a particular line is once accepted in good faith” -”How pleasant is the day when we give up striving to be young,-or slender!” -”A certain man who lost every penny during our civil war went and actually rolled in the dust, saying he had not felt so free and happy since he was born.”-Self esteem is determined by the ratio of things attempted to things achieved. -Self esteem increases if we succeed more or attempt less: -”To give up pretensions is as blessed a relief as to get them gratified.” -”There is the strangest lightness about the heart when one’s nothingness in a particular line is once accepted in good faith” -”How pleasant is the day when we give up striving to be young,-or slender!” -”A certain man who lost every penny during our civil war went and actually rolled in the dust, saying he had not felt so free and happy since he was born.”

20. William James Emotions James-Lange Theory of Emotion: The theory that people first respond and then have an emotional experience. For example, we run first, and then we are frightened. An implication of the theory is that we should act according to the way we want to feel. Perception causes bodily reactions that are then experienced as emotions. -Lange, Carl George (1834-1900) Along with James, proposed the theory that a person's emotional experience follows his or her behavior. -”Whistling to keep up courage is no mere figure of speech. On the other hand, sit all day in a moping posture, sigh, and reply to everything with a dismal voice, and you melancholy lingers. There is no more valuable precept in moral education than this, as all who have experience know: if we wish to conquer undesirable emotional tendencies in ourselves we must assiduously, and in the first instance coldbloodedly, go through the outward movements of those contrary dispositions which we prefer to cultivate. The reward of persistency will infallibly come, in the fading out of the sullenness or depression, and the advent of real cheerfulness and kindliness in their stead.”-Lange, Carl George (1834-1900) Along with James, proposed the theory that a person's emotional experience follows his or her behavior. -”Whistling to keep up courage is no mere figure of speech. On the other hand, sit all day in a moping posture, sigh, and reply to everything with a dismal voice, and you melancholy lingers. There is no more valuable precept in moral education than this, as all who have experience know: if we wish to conquer undesirable emotional tendencies in ourselves we must assiduously, and in the first instance coldbloodedly, go through the outward movements of those contrary dispositions which we prefer to cultivate. The reward of persistency will infallibly come, in the fading out of the sullenness or depression, and the advent of real cheerfulness and kindliness in their stead.”

21. Theories of Emotion The James-Lange Theory Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli -We feel fear because our heart is pounding. -We feel sad because we are crying. -We feel happy because we smile. -American physiologist Walter Cannon thought that the body’s responses were not distinct enough, does a pounding heart signal anger, fear, or love?-We feel fear because our heart is pounding. -We feel sad because we are crying. -We feel happy because we smile. -American physiologist Walter Cannon thought that the body’s responses were not distinct enough, does a pounding heart signal anger, fear, or love?

22. Theories of Emotion The Cannon-Bard Theory Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: physiological responses subjective experience of emotion -The emotion-triggering stimulus is routed simultaneously to the brain’s cortex, causing the subjective awareness of emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing the body’s arousal.-The emotion-triggering stimulus is routed simultaneously to the brain’s cortex, causing the subjective awareness of emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing the body’s arousal.

23. Theories of Emotion James-Lange vs. Cannon-Bard Evidence supporting James-Lange The arousal associated with different emotions is distinctly, though subtly, different. Soldiers that are paralyzed below neck report that emotions don’t have the same intensity that they used to. Merely smiling leads to greater reported happiness. Evidence supporting Cannon-Bard There is more to our emotion than merely reading physiology, there is some cognition. -Though the evidence seems to support James-Lange, researchers seem to agree that our experience of emotion is much richer than merely reading our physiology. There is some cognition in the form of perceptions, memories, and interpretations.-Though the evidence seems to support James-Lange, researchers seem to agree that our experience of emotion is much richer than merely reading our physiology. There is some cognition in the form of perceptions, memories, and interpretations.

24. Theories of Emotions Cognition and Emotion Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory To experience emotion one must: Be physically aroused Cognitively label the arousal -In order for us to experience emotion, we must consciously interpret our arousal. -Sometimes our arousal from one event spills over into the next event. -During soccer matches, massive riots happen, why. -Studies: -1. Injected with epinephrine which creates physiological arousal. Half told it was epinephrine, expect arousal. Half told nothing will happen. -Go to a waiting room where an accomplice is acting euphoric or irritated. -If the people were told to expect nothing from the injection, then they began to feel and act euphoric or irritated. If told the injection would cause arousal, they had no change in their emotions. -2. Arouse people by pedaling a stationary bike, then insult them, they will act much more provoked. -In order for us to experience emotion, we must consciously interpret our arousal. -Sometimes our arousal from one event spills over into the next event. -During soccer matches, massive riots happen, why. -Studies: -1. Injected with epinephrine which creates physiological arousal. Half told it was epinephrine, expect arousal. Half told nothing will happen. -Go to a waiting room where an accomplice is acting euphoric or irritated. -If the people were told to expect nothing from the injection, then they began to feel and act euphoric or irritated. If told the injection would cause arousal, they had no change in their emotions. -2. Arouse people by pedaling a stationary bike, then insult them, they will act much more provoked.

25. William James Free Will Inasmuch as psychology is science, determinism MUST be assumed. However, James believed that there were many ways to study psychology and science was only one of them. Using the other ways the assumption of free-will might be very fruitful. -The determinism/free-will argument has been brewing for centuries.-The determinism/free-will argument has been brewing for centuries.

26. William James Free Will Analysis of Voluntary Behavior Ideo-motor Theory of Behavior: According to James, ideas cause behavior, and thus we can control our behavior by controlling our ideas. ”…what holds attention determines action.” The will functions by selecting one from among many ideas of action we are interested in doing. -In the vast majority of cases, ideas of actions flow immediately and automatically into behavior. -This automatic process continues unless mental effort is expended to purposively select and hold an idea in consciousness. -From the ideas of various possible actions, one is selected for attention, and that is the one that causes behavior and continues to cause behavior as long as the idea is attended to. -In the vast majority of cases, ideas of actions flow immediately and automatically into behavior. -This automatic process continues unless mental effort is expended to purposively select and hold an idea in consciousness. -From the ideas of various possible actions, one is selected for attention, and that is the one that causes behavior and continues to cause behavior as long as the idea is attended to.

27. William James Pragmatism Pragmatism is the cornerstone of Functionalism. Any belief, thought, or behavior must be judged by its consequences. Truth must be gauged by effectiveness under changing circumstances. The criterion of validity of an idea is its usefulness -In Pragmatism (1907) James identified two types of people, tender-minded and tough-minded. -Tender-minded are rationalistic, intellectual, idealistic, optimistic, religious and dogmatic and tend to believe in free-will -Tough-minded are empiricistic, sensationalistic, materialistic, pessimistic, irreligious, skeptical, and fatalistic. -Pragmatism is a compromise between the two worldviews. A pragmatist takes what works best from each list. -Following in this pragmatic view, James embraced parapsychology as one more way of knowing about humans. -Founder of the American Society for Psychical Research. -The investigation of mystical experience was constant throughout the life of James, leading him to experiment with chloral hydrate (1870), amyl nitrite (1875), nitrous oxide (1882), and even peyote (1896). James claimed that it was only when he was under the influence of nitrous oxide that he was able to understand Hegel. He concluded that while the revelations of the mystic hold true, they hold true only for the mystic; for others, they are certainly ideas to be considered, but can hold no claim to truth without personal experience of such. -In Pragmatism (1907) James identified two types of people, tender-minded and tough-minded. -Tender-minded are rationalistic, intellectual, idealistic, optimistic, religious and dogmatic and tend to believe in free-will -Tough-minded are empiricistic, sensationalistic, materialistic, pessimistic, irreligious, skeptical, and fatalistic. -Pragmatism is a compromise between the two worldviews. A pragmatist takes what works best from each list. -Following in this pragmatic view, James embraced parapsychology as one more way of knowing about humans. -Founder of the American Society for Psychical Research. -The investigation of mystical experience was constant throughout the life of James, leading him to experiment with chloral hydrate (1870), amyl nitrite (1875), nitrous oxide (1882), and even peyote (1896). James claimed that it was only when he was under the influence of nitrous oxide that he was able to understand Hegel. He concluded that while the revelations of the mystic hold true, they hold true only for the mystic; for others, they are certainly ideas to be considered, but can hold no claim to truth without personal experience of such.

28. Hugo Münsterberg Received doctorate with Wundt Went on the get medical degree Began teaching as a Pritvatdocent at the University of Freiburg Disagreed with Wundt over whether the will could be experienced as a conscious element of the mind during introspection. When James retired from psychology in 1892 he offered his position at Harvard to Munsterberg (who could read, but not speak English) -Münsterberg, Hugo (1863-1916) Stressed the application of psychological principles in such areas as clinical, forensic, and industrial psychology. In so doing, Münsterberg created applied psychology. -Munsterberg believed that there is no will, as we prepare to act in some way, we consciously experience this bodily preparedness and confuse it with the will to act. -In 1895 he returned to Freiburg trying to get a good position but failed. -In 1897 he returned to Harvard -President of the APA in 1898 -He never lost his German heritage -Münsterberg, Hugo (1863-1916) Stressed the application of psychological principles in such areas as clinical, forensic, and industrial psychology. In so doing, Münsterberg created applied psychology. -Munsterberg believed that there is no will, as we prepare to act in some way, we consciously experience this bodily preparedness and confuse it with the will to act. -In 1895 he returned to Freiburg trying to get a good position but failed. -In 1897 he returned to Harvard -President of the APA in 1898 -He never lost his German heritage

29. Hugo Münsterberg Münsterberg’s Applied Psychology Clinical Psychology Used the power of suggestion of improvement. Reciprocal Antagonism: Method of treating mentally disturbed individuals, whereby he would strengthen thoughts antagonistic to those causing a problem. Felt that alcoholism, drug addiction, phobias and sexual dysfunction could be cured, but psychosis could not. Aware of Freud, but chose to treat symptoms. “The story of the subconscious mind can be told in three words: there is none.” -Munsterberg saw mentally ill patients, but never charged them since he was seeing them for science. -Munsterberg saw mentally ill patients, but never charged them since he was seeing them for science.

30. Hugo Münsterberg Münsterberg’s Applied Psychology Forensic Psychology Forensic Psychology: The application of psychological principles to legal matters. Münsterberg is considered the first forensic psychologist. Sensory impressions can be illusory. Suggestion and stress can affect memory. Harsh interrogation leads to false confessions. In On the Witness Stand (1908) he described a machine for detecting lying by observing changes in pulse rate and respiration. -He staged traumatic events in the classroom to show how witnesses differed in their accounts of what happened.-He staged traumatic events in the classroom to show how witnesses differed in their accounts of what happened.

31. Hugo Münsterberg Münsterberg’s Applied Psychology Industrial Psychology Industrial Psychology: The application of psychological principles to such matters as personnel selection; increasing employee productivity; equipment design; and marketing, advertising, and packaging of products. Münsterberg is usually considered the first industrial psychologist. Vocation and Learning (1912) and Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913) Dealt with personnel selection, work efficiency, marketing and advertising. -It is necessary to take into account individual differences when making job assignments. -Some people might find a particular job boring whereas others might find it exciting.-It is necessary to take into account individual differences when making job assignments. -Some people might find a particular job boring whereas others might find it exciting.

32. Hugo Münsterberg Münsterberg’s Fate Made psychology popular outside of academia. Was friendly with Teddy Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Bertrand Russell and others. Became unpopular later in life due to his defense of Germany’s actions leading up to WW I and criticism of America (The Americans (1904) and American Problems (1910)). Suspected of being a spy Died from a cerebral hemorrhage just as he was beginning a Saturday lecture.

33. Mary Whiton Calkins -Calkins, Mary Whiton (1863-1930) Although satisfying all the requirements for a PhD at Harvard, she was denied the degree because she was a woman. In spite of such restrictions, Calkins made significant contributions to the study of verbal learning, memory and to self-psychology. Her many honors included being elected the first woman president of the American Psychological Association, in 1905. -Graduated from Smith College -Appointed to a position at Wellesley College teaching Greek. -Wellesley sought a woman to teach experimental psychology, but no one on the faculty knew enough. -Because of Calkins interest in philosophy, it was decided she would receive the necessary training. -None of the nearby institutions took women into graduate courses. -Allowed to attend graduate seminars at Harvard. -All male students withdrew from James’ seminar that she was to attend. -She was only student -After her year she began teaching experimental psychology at Wellesley. -A few years later, she decided to pursue more psychology laboratory work. -James had moved on so she worked with Munsterberg -Munsterberg wanted to give her a PhD, but Harvard would not grant it. -Radcliffe offered, she refused -She received honorary degrees from Colombia and Smith College.-Calkins, Mary Whiton (1863-1930) Although satisfying all the requirements for a PhD at Harvard, she was denied the degree because she was a woman. In spite of such restrictions, Calkins made significant contributions to the study of verbal learning, memory and to self-psychology. Her many honors included being elected the first woman president of the American Psychological Association, in 1905. -Graduated from Smith College -Appointed to a position at Wellesley College teaching Greek. -Wellesley sought a woman to teach experimental psychology, but no one on the faculty knew enough. -Because of Calkins interest in philosophy, it was decided she would receive the necessary training. -None of the nearby institutions took women into graduate courses. -Allowed to attend graduate seminars at Harvard. -All male students withdrew from James’ seminar that she was to attend. -She was only student -After her year she began teaching experimental psychology at Wellesley. -A few years later, she decided to pursue more psychology laboratory work. -James had moved on so she worked with Munsterberg -Munsterberg wanted to give her a PhD, but Harvard would not grant it. -Radcliffe offered, she refused -She received honorary degrees from Colombia and Smith College.

34. Granville Stanley Hall (a.k.a. G. Stanley Hall) -Hall, Granville Stanley (1844-1924) Created the first U.S. experimental psychology laboratory, founded and became the first president of the American Psychological Association, and invited Freud to Clark University to give a series of lectures. Hall thus helped psychoanalysis receive international recognition, and his recapitulation theory did much to stimulate interest in developmental psychology. Hall was also among the first to advocate providing sex education to children. -Hall, Granville Stanley (1844-1924) Created the first U.S. experimental psychology laboratory, founded and became the first president of the American Psychological Association, and invited Freud to Clark University to give a series of lectures. Hall thus helped psychoanalysis receive international recognition, and his recapitulation theory did much to stimulate interest in developmental psychology. Hall was also among the first to advocate providing sex education to children.

35. Granville Stanley Hall

36. Granville Stanley Hall President of Clark University Became President of Clark University and remained professor of psychology Invited 26 prominent psychologists to form an association of psychologists. July 8, 1892 the APA was founded and group decided to invite 5 others making the charter membership 31. Founded journals Pedagogical Seminary (now called Journal of Genetic Psychology) (1891), Journal of Religious Psychology (1904), Journal of Applied Psychology (1917). -Clark University was founded in 1887 and Hall was asked to be president in 1888. -In 1893, 11 of the 14 PhD degrees given out by American universities had been given by him. -In 1898, he had awarded 30 of the 54 total awarded.-Clark University was founded in 1887 and Hall was asked to be president in 1888. -In 1893, 11 of the 14 PhD degrees given out by American universities had been given by him. -In 1898, he had awarded 30 of the 54 total awarded.

37. Granville Stanley Hall Recapitulation Theory Recapitulation Theory: Hall's contention that all stages of human evolution are reflected in the life of an individual. -Hall believed that instead of physics, evolutionary theory should act as a model for science. -Hall believed that instead of physics, evolutionary theory should act as a model for science.

38. Granville Stanley Hall Recapitulation Theory During development a single celled organism develops into a newborn child whose capacities are equal to lower mammals. Childhood is characterized by impulsive behaviors reminiscent of earlier stages of evolution. “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” -”Every child, from the moment of conception to maturity, recapitulates, very rapidly at first, and then more slowly every stage of development through which the human race from its lowest beginnings has passed.”-”Every child, from the moment of conception to maturity, recapitulates, very rapidly at first, and then more slowly every stage of development through which the human race from its lowest beginnings has passed.”

39. Francis Cecil Sumner Hall’s last graduate student Parents chose family last name based on a senator from Massachusetts Chair of the departments of psychology and philosophy at West Virginia Collegiate Institute. Argued for continued segregation in schools. Simply writing what needed to be said at the time in order to receive any support for black education? Moved on to Howard University which became the center of black psychology

40. Kenneth Bancroft Clark Started with medical school ambitions, but switched to psychology after taking a course with Sumner at Howard. “Professor Sumner had rigorous standards for his students. And he didn’t just teach psychology. He taught integrity.” Received PhD from Columbia Did work on the developmental effects of discrimination and segregation on children. Work cited in Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 -Born in the Panama Canal Zone -Black children were shown two sets of identical dolls which were identical except for hair and skin color. -The majority of the children picked the white dolls as having the “nice color” -When instructed to choose the doll which looked like them, 39% of the children chose the white doll.-Born in the Panama Canal Zone -Black children were shown two sets of identical dolls which were identical except for hair and skin color. -The majority of the children picked the white dolls as having the “nice color” -When instructed to choose the doll which looked like them, 39% of the children chose the white doll.

41. Functionalism at the University of Chicago John Dewey Graduated from University of Vermont PhD from Johns Hopkins University in Philosophy (though he took classes with Hall). Appointed to University of Michigan Chair of Philosophy Department at University of Chicago Wrote “The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology” (1896) which many credit as the founding of Functionalism -Dewey, John (1859-1952) A key person in the development of functionalism. Some mark the formal beginning of the school of functionalism with the 1896 publication of Dewey's article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology." -Dewey, John (1859-1952) A key person in the development of functionalism. Some mark the formal beginning of the school of functionalism with the 1896 publication of Dewey's article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology."

42. Functionalism at the University of Chicago John Dewey Dewey on Reflexes Dividing the reflex into sensory processes, brain processes and motor responses misses its most important feature which is its purpose. There is a stream of behavior just as there is a stream of consciousness. The three elements of a reflex must be viewed as a coordinated system directed at a goal, usually survival. To study elements of an act is to miss its purpose. -Stimuli and responses cannot be studied separately because they form an interrelated sequence of functional events.-Stimuli and responses cannot be studied separately because they form an interrelated sequence of functional events.

43. Functionalism at the University of Chicago James Rowland Angell -Angell, James Rowland (1869-1949) As president of the American Psychological Association and as chairman of the psychology department at the University of Chicago for 25 years, did much to promote functionalism. -Angell studied under Dewey at Michigan, then James at Harvard. -Taught at the University of Chicago -Eventually became president of Yale-Angell, James Rowland (1869-1949) As president of the American Psychological Association and as chairman of the psychology department at the University of Chicago for 25 years, did much to promote functionalism. -Angell studied under Dewey at Michigan, then James at Harvard. -Taught at the University of Chicago -Eventually became president of Yale

44. Functionalism at the University of Chicago Harvey Carr -Carr, Harvey (1873-1954) An early functionalistic psychologist at the University of Chicago. -Carr, Harvey (1873-1954) An early functionalistic psychologist at the University of Chicago.

45. Functionalism at the University of Chicago Harvey Carr -Needs must be met for organisms to survive. -Needs motivate behavior until an act satisfies the need, at which point learning occurs. -The next time an organism is in the same situation and experiences the same need, the organism will tend to repeat the same behavior which satisfied the need previously.-Needs must be met for organisms to survive. -Needs motivate behavior until an act satisfies the need, at which point learning occurs. -The next time an organism is in the same situation and experiences the same need, the organism will tend to repeat the same behavior which satisfied the need previously.

46. Functionalism at Columbia University James McKeen Cattell Cattell, James McKeen (1860-1944) Worked with Galton and developed a strong interest in measuring individual differences. Cattell brought Galton's methods of intelligence testing to the United States. -“Wundt came to see me this morning. He stayed three quarters of an hour & was very cordial, as he has always been recently. He has treated me very nicely considering that I have called his attention to mistakes in his work. Wundt’s laboratory has a reputation greater than it deserves—the work done in it is decidedly amateurish. I was invited by Professor Wundt to supper with other members of the laboratory, I can’t say that enjoy such things. I have no special delight to hear Wundt talk about the aoera and such like. Mrs. Wundt is however nice and Prof. Wundt seems to like me and to appreciate my phenomenal genius.”Cattell, James McKeen (1860-1944) Worked with Galton and developed a strong interest in measuring individual differences. Cattell brought Galton's methods of intelligence testing to the United States. -“Wundt came to see me this morning. He stayed three quarters of an hour & was very cordial, as he has always been recently. He has treated me very nicely considering that I have called his attention to mistakes in his work. Wundt’s laboratory has a reputation greater than it deserves—the work done in it is decidedly amateurish. I was invited by Professor Wundt to supper with other members of the laboratory, I can’t say that enjoy such things. I have no special delight to hear Wundt talk about the aoera and such like. Mrs. Wundt is however nice and Prof. Wundt seems to like me and to appreciate my phenomenal genius.”

47. Functionalism at Columbia University James McKeen Cattell -His job at the University of Pennsylvania was choreographed by his father who was president of Lafayette College. -His salary was $1000 -This is the class schedule from the University of Pennsylvania from 1889.-His job at the University of Pennsylvania was choreographed by his father who was president of Lafayette College. -His salary was $1000 -This is the class schedule from the University of Pennsylvania from 1889.

48. Functionalism at Columbia University James McKeen Cattell -In 1901, Clark Wisler, one of Cattell’s graduate students, used the newly created Pearson’s R to calculate correlations and found that intercorrelations among the 50 tests scores was terrible and they did not correlate with college success. -Cattell’s measures were not reliable or valid. -Wisler switched to Anthropology, Cattell shifted his emphasis in psychology.-In 1901, Clark Wisler, one of Cattell’s graduate students, used the newly created Pearson’s R to calculate correlations and found that intercorrelations among the 50 tests scores was terrible and they did not correlate with college success. -Cattell’s measures were not reliable or valid. -Wisler switched to Anthropology, Cattell shifted his emphasis in psychology.

49. Functionalism at Columbia University James McKeen Cattell Applied Psychology “sciences are not immutable species, but developing organisms.” Why not experiment with ideas and methods? Of course they should be evaluated pragmatically, in terms of their usefulness. Almost everyone attempts to apply psychological principles. Psychological principles should be applied to everyday life. Founded the Psychological Corporation for assessment -Owned and operated many journals -Columbia became the stronghold of functional psychology under Cattell. -Instrumental in founding the AAUP which advocated complete academic freedom and tenure. -In 1917 he wrote a letter critical of sending drafted soldiers overseas. -He wrote the letter on Columbia University letterhead! -He was fired from Columbia. -Owned and operated many journals -Columbia became the stronghold of functional psychology under Cattell. -Instrumental in founding the AAUP which advocated complete academic freedom and tenure. -In 1917 he wrote a letter critical of sending drafted soldiers overseas. -He wrote the letter on Columbia University letterhead! -He was fired from Columbia.

50. Functionalism at Columbia University Robert Sessions Woodworth Obtained MS with James at Harvard, then PhD with Cattell at Columbia Interested in what people do, but more importantly, why they do it. Dynamic psychology: The brand of psychology suggested by Woodworth that stressed the internal variables that motivate organisms to act. Instead of S-R relationships, he advocated S-O-R In the same physical environment, an organism will act differently depending on what need or drive is present. -Woodworth, Robert Sessions (1869-1962) An influential functionalist at Columbia University who emphasized the role of motivation in behavior. -Psychologists should accept valid information no matter where it comes from. -Cofounder of the Psychological Corporation.-Woodworth, Robert Sessions (1869-1962) An influential functionalist at Columbia University who emphasized the role of motivation in behavior. -Psychologists should accept valid information no matter where it comes from. -Cofounder of the Psychological Corporation.

51. Functionalism at Columbia University Robert Sessions Woodworth Woodworth and Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology -Two of Woodworth’s influential books. -Experimental Psychology (1938, revised 1954) was THE Experimental psychology textbook for over 20 years.-Two of Woodworth’s influential books. -Experimental Psychology (1938, revised 1954) was THE Experimental psychology textbook for over 20 years.

52. Early Animal Research George Romanes Animal research in psychology started with (was made possible by) Darwin’s The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) George Romanes wrote Animal Intelligence (1882), Mental Evolution in Animals (1884) and Mental Evolution in Man (1888). Romanes tended to use anecdotal evidence and anthropomorphized. Attributed anger, fear, and jealousy to fish. -Romanes, George John (1848-1894) One of the first to follow Darwin's lead and study animal behavior. Romanes's research was very subjective, however, and relied heavily on anecdotal evidence. -”One day the cat and the parrot had a quarrel. I think the cat had upset Polly’s food, or something of that kind; however, they seemed alright again. An hour or so after, Polly was standing on the edge of the table; she called out in a tone of extreme affection, “Puss, puss, come then-come then, puss.” Puss went and looked up innocently enough. Polly with her beak seized a basin of milk standing by, and tipped the basin and all its contents over the cat; then chuckled diabolically, of course broke the basin, and half drowned the cat.”-Romanes, George John (1848-1894) One of the first to follow Darwin's lead and study animal behavior. Romanes's research was very subjective, however, and relied heavily on anecdotal evidence. -”One day the cat and the parrot had a quarrel. I think the cat had upset Polly’s food, or something of that kind; however, they seemed alright again. An hour or so after, Polly was standing on the edge of the table; she called out in a tone of extreme affection, “Puss, puss, come then-come then, puss.” Puss went and looked up innocently enough. Polly with her beak seized a basin of milk standing by, and tipped the basin and all its contents over the cat; then chuckled diabolically, of course broke the basin, and half drowned the cat.”

53. Early Animal Research Conwy Lloyd Morgan (a.k.a. C. Lloyd Morgan) Conwy Lloyd Morgan attempted to correct Romanes’ anthropomorphizing. Morgan's Canon: The insistence that explanations of animal behavior be kept as simple as possible. “In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands lower on the psychological scale.” -Morgan, Conwy Lloyd (1852-1936) An early comparative psychologist who believed that there is a gradation of consciousness among animal species. To infer the cognitive processes used by various animals, he observed their naturally occurring behavior. -He did not argue against the existence of mental life in animals. -In fact, he argued that mental life in animals must exist in order for comparative psychology to exist. -Mental events facilitate survival. -There is a gradient of mental life across species. -Morgan’s canon was not primarily to avoid anthropomorphism, but to avoid anthropocentrism. -Anthropocentricism is to assume that the mental life of humans is similar to the mental life of animals.-Morgan, Conwy Lloyd (1852-1936) An early comparative psychologist who believed that there is a gradation of consciousness among animal species. To infer the cognitive processes used by various animals, he observed their naturally occurring behavior. -He did not argue against the existence of mental life in animals. -In fact, he argued that mental life in animals must exist in order for comparative psychology to exist. -Mental events facilitate survival. -There is a gradient of mental life across species. -Morgan’s canon was not primarily to avoid anthropomorphism, but to avoid anthropocentrism. -Anthropocentricism is to assume that the mental life of humans is similar to the mental life of animals.

54. Early Animal Research Margaret Floy Washburn Margaret Floy Washburn published The Animal Mind (1908) Attempted to index consciousness in all animals. Summarized hundreds of studies where controlled behavior was used as a measure of mental events. Made comparative psychology more objective. -Washburn, Margaret Floy (1871-1939) First woman to attain a doctorate in psychology and second woman president of the APA (1921). Made significant contributions to comparative psychology by studying animal behavior under controlled conditions before inferring the mental attributes necessary to explain the observed behavior. -Washburn, Margaret Floy (1871-1939) First woman to attain a doctorate in psychology and second woman president of the APA (1921). Made significant contributions to comparative psychology by studying animal behavior under controlled conditions before inferring the mental attributes necessary to explain the observed behavior.

55. Functionalism at Columbia University Edward Thorndike Attended Wesleyan University Obtained MS under William James Obtained PhD under Cattell Dissertation titled “Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals” (1898) was republished as Animal Intelligence (1911). -Thorndike, Edward Lee (1874-1949) Marks the transition between the schools of functionalism and behaviorism. Thorndike concluded from his objective animal research that learning occurs gradually, occurs independent of consciousness, and is the same for all mammals. His final theory of learning was that practice alone has no effect on an association (neural bond) and that positive consequences strengthen an association but negative consequences do not weaken it. -Thorndike was raising chicks in his room as experimental subjects. -His landlady forbid it. -James tried to get Thorndike lab space at Harvard but failed. -James let Thorndike use his basement for his work. -Thorndike is thought to be the psychologist who bridged functionalism with behaviorism which we’ll consider next.-Thorndike, Edward Lee (1874-1949) Marks the transition between the schools of functionalism and behaviorism. Thorndike concluded from his objective animal research that learning occurs gradually, occurs independent of consciousness, and is the same for all mammals. His final theory of learning was that practice alone has no effect on an association (neural bond) and that positive consequences strengthen an association but negative consequences do not weaken it. -Thorndike was raising chicks in his room as experimental subjects. -His landlady forbid it. -James tried to get Thorndike lab space at Harvard but failed. -James let Thorndike use his basement for his work. -Thorndike is thought to be the psychologist who bridged functionalism with behaviorism which we’ll consider next.

56. Functionalism at Columbia University Edward Thorndike Thorndike’s Puzzle Box Puzzle Box: The experimental chamber Thorndike used for systematically studying animal behavior. Learning is incremental Learning occurs automatically The same principles of learning apply to all animals. -Study of how an organism’s behaviors serve a functional purpose. -If thinking is not required for learning, what was the point of introspection? -Very close to behaviorism. -Study of how an organism’s behaviors serve a functional purpose. -If thinking is not required for learning, what was the point of introspection? -Very close to behaviorism.

57. Functionalism at Columbia University Edward Thorndike Connectionism Sense impressions and responses are connected by neural bonds. The probability of a response being made in the presence of a particular sensory event (stimulus) is determined by the strength of the neural connection between the stimulus and the event. Connectionism: The term often used to describe Thorndike's theory of learning because of its concern with the neural bonds or connections that associate sense impressions and impulses to action. -Not concerned with how ideas become associated but with how neural connections change strength with experience.-Not concerned with how ideas become associated but with how neural connections change strength with experience.

58. Functionalism at Columbia University Edward Thorndike The Laws of Exercise and Effect Law of Exercise: Thorndike's contention that the strength of an association varied with the frequency of the association's use. Law of Use: Thorndike's contention that the more often an association is made, the stronger it becomes. Law of Disuse: Thorndike's contention that infrequently used associations become weak. We learn by doing and forget by not doing -Created the first theory of learning by combining the laws of association with hedonism. -Created the first theory of learning by combining the laws of association with hedonism.

59. Functionalism at Columbia University Edward Thorndike The Laws of Exercise and Effect Law of Effect: Thorndike's contention that reward strengthens associations, whereas punishment weakens them. If an association is followed by a “satisfying state of affairs” it will be strengthened, and if it is followed by an “annoying state of affairs”, it will be weakened. Reinforcement strengthens behavior whereas punishment weakens it.

60. Functionalism at Columbia University Edward Thorndike Rejection of Exercise and Revision of Effect 1929, “I was wrong.” He discarded the law of exercise Practice alone was not enough to strengthen an association. Passage of time alone did not weaken an association. Law of effect changed such that reinforcement strengthens associations but punishment does not change the strength of association. -Tell story of Joa jumping on the bed. -When she is punished, she does not “forget” that jumping on the bed is fun.-Tell story of Joa jumping on the bed. -When she is punished, she does not “forget” that jumping on the bed is fun.

61. The Fate of Functionalism Functionalism never died as structuralism had, rather it has been absorbed into other areas of psychology. Modern Evolutionary Psychology is a direct descendent. Led directly to the rise of behaviorism.

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