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Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency. 1801-1809. The Beginning. March 4, 1801 Thomas Jefferson is the first President inaugurated in the new capital city of Washington D.C. He delivers his first inaugural address. This address outlines what he feels are the essential principles of government.

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Thomas jefferson s presidency

Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency

1801-1809


The beginning
The Beginning

  • March 4, 1801

    • Thomas Jefferson is the first President inaugurated in the new capital city of Washington D.C.

    • He delivers his first inaugural address. This address outlines what he feels are the essential principles of government.


First inaugural address
First Inaugural Address

  • Essential Principles of Government

    • “equal and exact justice to all men”

    • “peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations”

    • “the support of state governments”

    • “the preservation of general government”

    • punishment for those who choose to revolt

    • compliance with the decisions of the majority


First inaugural address1
First Inaugural Address

  • Essential Principles of Government Cont…

    • “a well disciplined militia”

    • honest payment of debts

    • maintaining a sound economy

    • proper distribution of information

    • freedom of religion

    • freedom of the press


Vice president aaron burr
Vice President Aaron Burr

  • “Northern Confederacy”

  • Split from Rep. party

  • Rivalry leads to a duel between Burr and Hamilton

  • Hamilton killed, Burr in exile

  • Plotted to form his own empire in the LA territory



John marshall s court 1801 1835
John Marshall’s Court (1801-1835)

  • Sought to increase Court’s and fed. gov’t power

  • Federalist ideas

  • Marbury v. Madison

    • Judicial review

  • McCullough v. Maryland

    • Implied powers


The louisiana purchase

The Louisiana Purchase

Let’s Review!


April 9 1682 lasalle claims louisiana territory for france
April 9, 1682: LaSalle claims Louisiana Territory for France.

http://www.jmu.edu/madison/louispurchase.htm


1763 french and indian war ends
1763- French and Indian War ends France.

  • Reminder: France vs. Great Britain

    • competing to be the most powerful nation in Europe.

    • Fighting because the British challenged French control of the Ohio Valley

    • American Indians and the Spanish assisted the French.



1763 french and indian war ends1
1763- French and Indian War ends France.

  • France lost the war… and were afraid of losing it’s holdings in Santo Domingo

    • Santo Domingo helped support the French Empire because of it’s lucrative cash crop of sugar

    • The Louisiana territory produced lumber, salt, flour and food for the sugar islands


France deeds louisiana purchase to spain
France deeds Louisiana Purchase to Spain France.

  • French King Louis XV gave the Louisiana Purchase to Spanish King Charles to make up for Spanish losses in the French and Indian War.

  • True ultimatum for France: the Louisiana Purchase was too expensive to protect.


1783 united states wins independence from britain
1783: United States wins independence from Britain! France.

  • New concerns for the United States:

    • A European power, Spain, was on it’s western boundary.

    • Settlers moved westward, but the Appalachian Mountains were in the way of sending goods to the East coast.


U s concerns
U.S. Concerns France.

  • The Ohio and Mississippi Rivers were needed to ship produce to the port of New Orleans, and Spain owned both sides of the Mississippi!

    • (then the goods could be placed on an ocean liner for shipment to Eastern states).


1795 pinckney treaty
1795- Pinckney Treaty France.

  • U. S. negotiated with Spain so that the U.S. could navigate the Mississippi River and use the port of New Orleans.

  • This was very productive for the United States


1800 napoleon plans to get back the louisiana territory
1800 Napoleon plans to get back the Louisiana Territory France.

  • Primarily to regain the West Indies (sugar isles).

  • The Louisiana Territory would provide good and goods for the troops and slaves in the West Indies


October 1 1800 treaty of san ildefonso
October 1, 1800: Treaty of San Ildefonso France.

  • The SECRET TREATY

  • Spain returned the Louisiana Territory to France AND gave them 6 war ships

  • France was supposed to hand over land in Tuscany.


1802 napoleon s brother in law arrives in the west indies
1802 Napoleon’s brother-in-law arrives in the West Indies France.

  • General Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc-

    • The brother-in-law

  • Pauline-

    • Napoleon’s sister

  • Were planning to lead a charmed life in a palace


1802 napoleon s brother in law arrives in the west indies1
1802 Napoleon’s brother-in-law arrives in the West Indies France.

  • Toussaint L’Ouverture

    • “Black Napoleon”

    • In 1791 he had led a slave rebellion in Santo Domingo.

    • Became dictator of the island

    • Defeated LeClerc and troops

    • Was later kidnapped by Napoleon


1802 jefferson and lewis plan the expedition
1802: Jefferson and Lewis plan the Expedition France.

  • Preliminary: Jefferson hoping to someday gain New Orleans for the United States.

  • Had heard rumors of the Treaty of San Ildefonso

  • Jefferson was hoping to keep France from governing New Orlean’s important port.


1803 ambassador livingston in paris
1803: Ambassador Livingston in Paris France.

  • Given permission by Jefferson to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans for $2 million.

  • James Monroe soon joined him to assist in negotiations.

  • Jefferson agreed that he’d increase spending to $10 million because he feared that U. S. would lose the use of the Mississippi River and New Orleans.


Meanwhile napoleon s problems
Meanwhile, Napoleon’s problems: France.

  • 1. money lost while fighting Toussaint L’Ouverture for 10 months. Without possession of Santa Domingo, the Louisiana Territory was useless to France.

  • Spain refused to sell Florida to France

  • Napoleon redirected attention to conquering all of Europe… he needed money to do so.


Talleyrand napoleon s minister of foreign affairs
Talleyrand, Napoleon’s Minister of Foreign Affairs France.

  • First to offer to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to Livingston

  • Barbe-Marbois, former representative of French government in Philadelphia

    • Friend of G. Washington, T. Jefferson, R. Livingston, J. Monroe….

    • Bonaparte’s “official negotiator


Negotiations
Negotiations: France.

  • Livingston and Monroe finally agreed to pay $15 million (the U.S. was in debt; didn’t really have the money)

  • U.S. Congress had to rush ratification because Napoleon was changing his mind.


Spain protests
Spain Protests France.

  • Spain was furious because they claimed that Spain still owned the territory because France never left the Kingdom of Etruria.

  • Jefferson threatened to take Louisiana by force and attack the Floridas, too

  • Louisiana ownership was quickly deeded to France so that….


America s louisiana territory
America’s Louisiana Territory France.

  • …France could deed the Louisiana Territory to the United States.

  • Lower Louisiana: transferred to the United states on November 30, 1803

  • Upper Louisiana: transferred in St. Louis on March 9, 1804


What was included
What was included? France.

  • The Purchase contained what now equates to portions of 15 states in the US and 2 Canadian provinces.

  • The land that was bought enclosed all of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska and parts of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, New Mexico, Texas, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and of course Louisiana. The land purchased also included parts of what is now Alberta and Saskachewan in Canada.

  • The land that was purchased in the Louisiana Purchase now makes up about 23% of the territory of the United States.



Barbary wars
Barbary Wars France.

  • May 1801

    • Pasha of Tripoli declares war with the United States because President Jefferson refused to make the immediate payment of $225,000 and the annual payment of $25,000.

    • On the 20th Jefferson sent the first naval fleet to the area.

      • The ships included the President, Philadelphia, Essex and Enterprise.

Map of the Barbary Wars

Original Map can be found at:

http://www.mariner.org/usnavy/caption_pages/06a_BarbaryWars.htm


Barbary wars1
Barbary Wars France.

  • In his first annual message, Jefferson addresses the Barbary Wars.

    • He justifies his actions of sending a naval fleet to the Mediterranean.

    • He also outlines the reasons the Pasha of Tripoli declared war with the United States.

Map of Tripoli

Original map can be found at:

http://historic-cities.huji.ac.il/libya/tripoli/tripoli.html


Barbary wars2
Barbary Wars France.

  • 1803 – Jefferson faces much criticism for his decisions made regarding the war

  • The Philadelphia runs aground in the Tripoli Harbor and it crew and captain are taken captive

  • He is forced to make several command changes.

    • 1801- Commodore Richard Dale

    • 1802 – Commodore Richard Morris

    • 1803 – Commodore Edward Preble

Nautical Map of Tripoli

Original map can be found at:

http://historic-cities.huji.ac.il/libya/tripoli/maps/roux_1764_pl_55.html


Barbary wars3

Realizing that there was no way to recapture the Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

February 4, 1804 the Philadelphia was destroyed.

August 3, 1804 the first attack against Tripoli took place when the Constitution’s guns fired on the city.

September 1804 – the final battle took place in the Tripoli Harbor

September 1804 – Commodore Barron arrived with backup for Commodore Preble

Commodore Barron, who is senior in rank to Preble, continued the blockade and started looking for a new way to peace

Shortly after Commodore Barron arrive, Commodore Preble retired

June 4, 1805 after the Pasha of Tripoli had been replaced, a treaty was made with the United States and the prisoners were released.

Barbary Wars


Embargo act of 1807
Embargo Act of 1807 Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • 1803 - Renewal of the Napoleonic Wars between France and Great Britain

  • America was once again trapped between the two nations

  • Jefferson wanting to stay neutral proposed an embargo on all foreign trade

  • This was highly unsuccessful and devastated the American Economy

  • The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was put in place to repeal the unsuccessful Embargo Act


The war of 1812

The War of 1812 Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

Causes of the War of 1812

The War Begins

The Effects of the War on America


The presidency of james madison
The Presidency of James Madison Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • Elected in 1808

  • Virginian lawyer and student of history

  • Wrote a large part of the U.S. Constitution

  • Stood barely 5’4” and 120 pounds but, an intellectual ahead of his time


Causes for the war of 1812
Causes for the War of 1812 Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • The British Navy is taking American sailors from American ships to sail on British ships. This is called impressment.

  • British sailors leave British ships to sail on American ships because they are treated better and get paid very well


Causes for the war of 18121
Causes for the War of 1812 Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • The British army is supporting Native American resistance to Anglo expansion on their land.


Causes for the war of 18122
Causes for the War of 1812 Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • The United States has a desire to expand into more territory like British Canada

  • The real cause for this land grab is because of a poor transportation system and effects from the Embargo Act

  • Americans believe that seizing more land will end the depression


Causes for the war of 18123
Causes for the War of 1812 Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • The United States wants to prove to Britain that the victory of the American Revolution was not luck.

  • Americans demand respect from the world.


Tecumseh and indian nationalism
Tecumseh and Indian Nationalism Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief attempts to unify Indian tribes that have been removed from the Ohio River Valley

  • His brother, the Prophet preached that Indians should reject White ways and embrace their heritage

  • The brothers have a large following but their hopes are destroyed at the battle of fallen Timbers


American shortcomings in the war of 1812
American Shortcomings in The War of 1812 Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • The military is poorly trained and led

  • The U.S. navy is no match for the British navy

  • American forces attempt to seize Canada but are poorly led and militia forces

  • Americans are forced to fight a defensive war against an invading professional army


The battle of thames
The Battle of Thames Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • October 5, 1813, British and Indian forces are defeated by American forces in Canada

  • Tecumseh’s death ends Indian resistance in the Ohio River Valley


The death of tecumseh
The Death of Tecumseh Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship


The british burn the capital
The British Burn the Capital Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • August 1814, the British Army invades the United States and marches on Washington D.C.

  • After a brief fight the city surrenders and nearly all government buildings are razed by fire

  • Madison rallies the American public after this defeat


The star spangled banner
“The Star Spangled Banner” Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • Francis Scott Key, a prisoner on a British barge witnessed the British bombardment of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore for 12 hours

  • In the morning he observed that the American flag still flew over the fort and writes a poem called “The Defence of Ft McHenry” it eventually becomes a song “The Star Spangled Banner”

  • Americans rally to the war effort after the capital is burnt down


The star spangled banner1
“The Star Spangled Banner” Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship


Things that make you go hmmm
Things that make you go hmmm Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • The Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814 ends the War of 1812. The war is considered Staus quo ante bellum

  • The Hartford Convention, several New England states fear that the war is lost and actually talk about becoming another country


The battle of new orleans
The Battle of New Orleans Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • The American forces are a multicultural motely band of experienced soldiers and warriors

  • The British, a trained army are virtually mauled by American forces hiding behind earthworks and cannons


The battle of new orleans1
The Battle of New Orleans Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • American forces at New Orleans are led by General Andrew Jackson whose army inflicts great casualties on the British army

  • Andrew Jackson will be associated with winning the war. People assume that this victory is responsible for ending the war.


A map of the Battle of New Orleans Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship


The battle of new orleans2
The Battle of New Orleans Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship


The impact of the war of 1812
The Impact of the War of 1812 Philadelphia, Commodore Preble devises a plan to destroy the ship

  • A sense of nationalism sweeps America. Nationalism is a belief and sense of pride in one’s country based on it’s achievements.

  • The nation will embark on foreign trade and begin to build a transportation system in the United States.

  • Native American resistance will be removed from the Ohio River Valley permanently opening the Midwest for expansion.


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