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Models vs. Reality. dr.ir . B.F. van Dongen Assistant Professor Eindhoven University of Technology b.f.v.dongen @ tue.nl. Process Mining. Discovering processes How do people behave? Compliance oriented Where and why do people deviate from standards / rules / regulations?

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models vs reality

Models vs. Reality

dr.ir. B.F. van Dongen

Assistant Professor

Eindhoven University of Technology

[email protected]

process mining
Process Mining
  • Discovering processes
    • How do people behave?
  • Compliance oriented
    • Where and why do people deviate from standards / rules / regulations?
  • Performance oriented
    • Where are bottlenecks in my processes?
aligning models to observed behavior
Aligning models to Observed Behavior

Starting point for conformance checking is a process model and a log

What is the most likely execution of the model, corresponding to a trace observed in the log?

introduction alignments
Introduction: Alignments
  • Alignments are used for conformance checking
  • Alignments are computed over a trace and a model:
      • A trace is a (partial) order of activities
      • A model is a labeled Petri labeled with activities
  • An alignment explains exactly where deviations occur:
      • A synchronous move mean that an activity is in the log and a corresponding transition was enabled in the model
      • A log move means that no corresponding activity is found in the model
      • A model move means that no corresponding activity appeared in the log
e xample
Example

model:

ABDE

log

logged d does not fit the model
Logged “D” does not fit the model

model:

A

B

A

B

D

ABDE

log

logged e aligns nicely to model
Logged “E” aligns nicely to model

model:

E

C

A

B

E

A

B

D

ABDE

log

alignment shows where deviations occurred
Alignment shows where deviations occurred

Alignment:

The best way to fit the trace in the model

model:

E

C

A

B

E

A

B

D

ABDE

log

alignments
Alignments
  • Alignments specify exactly where deviations occurred when comparing logs to models
  • Alignments can be used for:
    • Fitness/precision computations
    • Performance analysis
    • Model repair
    • ...
    • Compliance analysis
use of alignment techniques in compliance
Use of alignment techniques in compliance

?

compliance improvement

compliance checking and analysis

implement compliance measures

formalize compliance rules

elicit compliance rules

13

automated compliance checking
Automated compliance checking

business process

compliance requirement

compliancespecification

diagnostic information

compliance checker

automated compliance checking1
Automated compliance checking

business process

Log

compliance requirement

B

F

diagnostic information

A

B

alignment

compliance checker

compliance

Petri net pattern

Ƭ

F

specifying compliance rules
Specifying Compliance Rules

rule repository

Log

Which compliance pattern?

compliance checker

How to prune the Petri net pattern?

precise

Petri net pattern

compliance specifier

implementation

Patient registration

Patient registration

X-Ray

Implementation

ProM6 (www.promtools.org/prom6)

Compliance Checking Using Conformance Checking

Elicit Compliance Rule

Patient registration

X-ray

others

conclusions
Conclusions

Alignments provide a powerful method to explain where operational processes deviated from models

Using the right models, alignments can detect (and predict) possible violations of compliance rules

Alignments provide guarantees on non-deviating cases

future directions
Future directions

Current challenges:

Representation and extraction of multi-dimensional event data for deviation detection

Representation and management of deviations

Detection and diagnosis of deviations

Online, real time deviation prediction

Integration of prototypes applicable to high-volume data

Application on real-life cases

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