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Media Training. Jan 13, 2002. Hello !. Good Afternoon !. Let’s talk about Media. YOU. Surviving in the Media Jungle ?. Media Planning ?. Number Crushing. Serious Analytical Job. Busy! Busy! Busy!. 100 Ways To Squeeze Media Sales. A Lot Of Jargons. Surviving in the Media Jungle ?.

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Media training

Media Training

Jan 13, 2002


Media training

Hello !


Good afternoon

Good Afternoon !


Let s talk about media

Let’s talk about Media


Surviving in the media jungle

YOU

Surviving in the Media Jungle ?


Media planning

Media Planning ?


Number crushing

Number Crushing


Serious analytical job

Serious Analytical Job


Busy busy busy

Busy! Busy! Busy!


100 ways to squeeze media sales

100 Ways To Squeeze Media Sales


A lot of jargons

A Lot Of Jargons


Surviving in the media jungle1

Surviving in the Media Jungle ?

To do our job better, we need your


Surviving in the media jungle2

Surviving in the Media Jungle ?

UNDERSTANDING


Understanding

Understanding

What do we do ?

How A/S can help ?

What we are talking about ?


Topics

Topics

  • Definition of Media Planning

  • Effective Media Planning

  • Media Briefing

  • Media Jargons

  • Reach & Frequency


What does all the jargon really mean

What Does All The Jargon Really Mean?

Media People Talk In Media Jargon


Media people talk in media jargon

Media People Talk In Media Jargon

“An Effective Reach of the

Target Audience at 3+/30%

Requires 160 GRPs and the Net

Reach is 60%.”

What does it mean ?


Surviving in the media jungle3

Surviving in the Media Jungle ?


The co existing rivalry

The Co-Existing Rivalry

Frequency

Reach

Continuity


Content

Recaps

Why important ?

Effective Frequency Vs Recency

Optimization in Daily Life

Summary

Content


Points to notice

Television Focus

Time Frame

Target Group

Point-of-view only

Points to Notice


Recaps

Recaps


Reach

Reach

  • (%) of different people who have an opportunity to see a commercial in a media schedule at least once. No duplication is involved

    e.g.1+ Reach = rating 1 + rating 2

    - duplication

spot 1

spot 2


Average frequency

Average Frequency

  • Average no. of “Opportunity to See” a commercial within a given period of time. With some people having more opportunities to expose to the commercial and some people less

2 x

3 x


Average frequency grps reach

Average Frequency = GRPs / Reach


Example

Example

  • Consider the following 6-spot schedule;

  • Target : People 15 - 49

    ExampleTARPs

    Spot 1: 15

    Spot 2: 20

    Spot 3: 11

    Spot 4: 30

    Spot 5: 8

    Spot 6: 26

    110


Example1

Example

  • Target Audience : People 15 - 49

Total TARPs=110

Reach (1+)=64%

Ave. Freq.=1.7


R f curve target audience people 15 49

R&F CurveTarget Audience : People 15 - 49

Reach (%)

1+

2+

3+

GRPs


About building reach

About Building Reach

  • Reach generally builds very quickly at first

  • After time, it becomes difficult to increase reach (have already reached the heavy TV viewers)

  • Increasing reach furthers means reaching light TV viewers

  • Increasing weight tends to increase frequency rather than reach


Reach curve looks different by using different media combinations or daypart combination

Reach curve looks different by using different media combinations or daypart combination

Primetime

Daytime


Certain principles about building reach

Certain Principles about Building Reach

  • Generally, certain media are known to be reach builders :

    • TV, Newspapers

    • Broad coverage, quick audience accumulation

  • Others are known as frequency builders :

    • Radio, Outdoor

    • Fragmented audience, low rating


R f why important

R&FWhy Important ?


Why important

Why Important ?

  • Exercise

    • Group discussion on the importance of R&F to Clients; to Planners & to Buyers

    • Time : 20 minutes


Why important1

Why Important ?

Who am I ?

When I joined the advertising field?


Why important2

Why Important ?

1 time may not be enough !!!


Media training

How much is enough ?

How many times

I should hit

my target this week ?


Why important3

Why Important ?

  • Client : evaluate effectiveness

  • Planner : define the sufficient weight level to achieve an effective advertising campaign

  • Buyer : better yardstick to optimized performance


R f different schools of thought

R&F Different Schools of Thought


Effective frequency

Effective Frequency

VS

Recency


How to evaluate the effectiveness

How to Evaluate the Effectiveness

  • What is the value of repeated exposure to an ad message?

  • Does the 2nd or 3rd have the same effect as the 1st?

  • How about the exposures beyond the 3rd?

  • Is the current budget utilized to provide maximum response with a minimum waste?

Traditionally, media plans were evaluated on the basis of Reach, Frequency, GRPs and CPMs


Setting quantitative measurable media objectives

Setting quantitative measurable media objectives

  • Identify the role of the advertising and its specific objectives in quantifiable terms

  • Identify the number of exposures that are necessary to convince each target prospect

  • Identify the percentage of target prospects that have to be convinced in order to achieve the advertising objectives

  • Identify the time frame which effective frequency objective has to be met


Effective frequency ef

EffectiveFrequency (EF)


Why effective frequency

Why Effective Frequency

“Average Frequency” can be misleading


Avg frequency 3x

Avg. Frequency 3x

PersonSchedule A Schedule B

12x1x

23x2x

33x2x

44x4x

53x6x


Effective frequency1

1+

3+

2+

4+

Effective Frequency

  • The number of exposures your target audience need to produce an optimum response from our advertising within a given period of time


Effective frequency2

Effective Frequency

  • Advertising Recognition - In 1972, Herbert Krugman, psychologist and public opinion researcher, defined the psychology of Commercial exposures as :

    • First exposure : “Curiosity” What is it ?

    • Second exposure : “Recognition” What of it ?

    • Third exposure : “Decision” The first reminder


Effective frequency3

Effective Frequency

  • Followed by the book of Michael Naples in 1979; “Effective Frequency: the relationship between frequency and advertising effectiveness”

  • The “3-hit theory”become popular


Ef range

EF (Range)

  • The theory is further modified by Colin McDonald

    • there is a minimum advertising exposure level for a product, below which there is no effect on the advertising goal

    • there is a maximum level above which there is either no further enhancement to the ad goal

    • More focus delivery will be resulted with minimum wastage of resources


Ef range1

EF (Range)

  • Brand Factors

    • Well established focus of sales VS New product

    • Established campaign VS New campaign

    • Simple message VS Complex message

    • High impact creative VS Low impact creative

    • With recent support VS Low recent support

    • High interest category VS Low interest category


Ef range2

EF (Range)

  • Consumer Factors

    • Receptive target audience VS Unreceptive audience

    • Reinforcing attitudes VS Changing attitudes

    • Reinforcing behavior VS Changing behavior

    • Low competitive activity VS High competitive activity

    • Low media clutter VS High media clutter


Ef estimator

EF Estimator

Key Considerations

Effective Frequency

A.The Brand

1.Well EstablishedNew Product210

2.Established CampaignNew Campaign0.52.5

3.Simple messageComplex message0.52.5

4.High impact creativeLow impact creative15

5.Recent support : HighRecent support : low15

6.High interest categoryLow interest category0.52.5

Low High

1

2

3

4

5

Weighting

Score

Total score of : 27.5(max) or 5.5(min)


Ef estimator1

EF Estimator

Key Considerations

Effective Frequency

Low High

B.The Consumer

7.Receptive targetUnreceptive15

audience

8.Reinforcing attitudes/Changing Attitudes/15

behaviorsbehaviors

9.Low competitiveHigh activity1.57.5

activity

10.Low media clutterHigh media clutter15

1

2

3

4

5

Weighting

Score

Total Score of : 22.5(max) or 4.5(min)

Grand Total Score : 50(max) or 10(min)


Ef estimator example

EF EstimatorExample

Key Considerations

Effective Frequency

A.The Brand

1.Well EstablishedNew Product24

2.Established CampaignNew Campaign0.51.5

3.Simple messageComplex message0.51.5

4.High impact creativeLow impact creative12

5.Recent support : HighRecent support : low12

6.High interest categoryLow interest category0.52

Low High

1

2

3

4

5

Weighting

Score

Total score of : 13


Ef estimator example1

EF EstimatorExample

Key Considerations

Effective Frequency

Low High

A.The Consumer

7.Receptive targetUnreceptive12

audience

8.Reinforcing attitudes/Changing Attitudes/13

behaviorsbehaviors

9.Low competitiveHigh activity1.56

activity

10.Low media clutterHigh media clutter14

1

2

3

4

5

Weighting

Score

Average score of : 15

Total Score : 28


Media training

For a 4-week period, we assume…

an effective frequency range from

1 - 8

and

the range of frequency of 2 times more


Media training

Score RangeStrike Rate Range

10-141-3

15-192-4

20-243-5

25-294-6

30-345-7

35-396-8

40-447-9

45-508-10


Effective reach

Effective Reach

  • The definition

    • (%) of the target audience who have had the opportunity to see the commercial at the Effective Frequency


Effective reach1

Effective Reach

  • How to establish

    • By judgment, experience, research support

      • How much effective reach can be afforded within the budget ?

      • How much is needed to achieve the marketing goals ?

      • George B. Murray suggested 45% is the norm

    • In term of cost efficiency

      • What is the relationship between cost and effective reach ?


Cost efficiency approach for n effective frequency

Cost efficiency approach for n+ effective frequency

  • Cost per Effective 3+ Reach


Cost efficiency approach for n effective frequency1

Cost efficiency approach for n+ effective frequency

Cost per 1% Effective 3+ Reach (Rmb)

Cost Efficient Zone

3+ Reach

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 GRPs


Recency

Recency


Recency theory

Recency Theory

  • John Philip Jones and Erwin Ephron

Effective frequency is provided by

ONE

single exposure


Recency theory1

Recency Theory

  • Focus on purchase trigger, relevancy. When Ad works.

  • People used to look for information about products to shop

  • Less weight, more weeks

  • When is more important than how many


Recency theory2

Recency Theory

  • “ There is a window of advertising opportunity preceding each purchase. Media planning’s job is to place the message in that window”

  • “If you want your advertising to benefits your brands in the long term, demonstrate its ability to sell your brands in the short-term.”


Recency theory3

Recency Theory

  • When a brand is unadvertised, its sales will suffer from successful competitive campaigns. The only way in which a brand can be protected is to be on the air fairly continuously

  • Better thought as ‘presence’


Recency theory4

Recency Theory

  • Plan for reach not frequency

  • Plan for continuity not bursts

  • Use one-week not 4-week planning method

  • Shop for lowest cost-per-reach-point not just lower CPM

  • Use dispersion (low ratings) not concentration (high ratings)

  • Aim to buy 50 -70 GRPs and 1+35% per week


Plan by r f

Plan by R & F

  • Derive your Media Objective

    • To deliver an effective reach of 55% of all people 14 - 49 at an effective frequency of 3+ across 4 wks period

  • Next Question

    • How much GRPs is required to deliver the above objective ?

    • How much it will cost to buy the above GRPs ?

    • In what station or prime/fringe mix should I buy for this schedule ?


Optimization in daily life

Optimizationin Daily Life


Objectives for optimization

Objectives for Optimization

  • Achieve the same Effective reach with the minimal budget

  • Achieve the highest Effective reach with the same amount of money


Media training

打怪兽游戏

目的:以最小的花费打死至少80%的怪兽

规则:1.现在有六只怪兽,它们的死 穴会按不同的时间出现在身体 不同的地方(见附表)

2.怪兽被打中两次就会死亡

3.要在不同时间攻击不同的地方会需要不同的子弹,价钱亦会不一样(见附表)

4.每颗子弹只可用一次,不可重复使用

5.子弹可同时攻击六只怪兽


Media training

怪兽死穴表

头 手 脚

头 手 脚

头 手 脚

早 午 晚

X

早 午 晚

X

早 午 晚

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

怪兽A

怪兽B

怪兽C

头 手 脚

头 手 脚

头 手 脚

早 午 晚

X

早 午 晚

X

早 午 晚

X

X

X

X

X

X

怪兽D

怪兽E

怪兽F


Media training

子弹价格表(人民币)

头 手 脚

200

400

390

早 午 晚

60

500

130

40

70

250


Optimal performance approach for effective frequency range

Optimal Performance approach for effective frequency range


Time frame

Time Frame

  • Across what period should we be looking at achieving the required effective frequency ?

    • campaign objectives

    • decision making process

    • purchase cycle

    • competitive activity

    • desired response

    • tactical considerations

    • seasonality

    • affordability


Time frame1

Time Frame

  • Campaign Objective

    • Thematic / Tactical (promotion)

  • Decision making process

    • Long term planning / impulse buy

  • Purchasing cycle and usage (nature of product)

    • Weekly for Beer, Monthly for FMCG, Quarterly for Diamond


Effective reach frequency

Effective Reach / Frequency

Merits of planning by Effective Reach / Effective Frequency ……

  • Planning Unit

    • Able to determine how much media weight is required to deliver the desired level of consumer response

    • Specific goals, based on given effective frequency level is provided to evaluate media planning effectiveness instead of the use of average exposure estimations

    • Media performance can be optimized within given budget


Effective reach frequency1

Effective Reach / Frequency

  • Buying Unit

    • To optimize the most cost efficient schedule to deliver the pre-determined effective reach and frequency level

    • A better guideline to follow as a yardstick


R f optimization

R & F Optimization

  • Some rules of thumb for selecting time slot for a spot schedule

    TARPsCPRP*SelectRationale

    HighLowBuild reach & cost efficient

    HighHighBuild reach but not cost efficient

    LowLowBuild Frequency

    LowHigh XNot cost efficient, can’t build R&F

    * CPRP = Media cost (Nett/Gross) / TARPs


Reach frequency optimization

Reach / Frequency Optimization

  • Same Schedule in Different Weeks

    • Same spot schedules deliver different GRPs level in different weeks

      • Everybody has different lifestyle / TV viewing habit every week, therefore each spot although scheduled at the same program, score different ratings every week

      • Same spot schedules achieve different R&F in different weeks


Reach frequency optimization1

Reach / Frequency Optimization

  • Example 1 : 6 spots schedule in SHTV / OTV

    GRPsAve. Freq1+Reach.

    1st Week (w/c Nov 20)68 1.3052%

    2nd Week (w/c Nov 28)60 1.3345%


Reach frequency optimization2

Reach / Frequency Optimization

  • Same spot schedule on different station mix will deliver different R&F distribution

    • Multi-station buy will maximize net reach of 1+ or 2+

    • Single station buy will maximize 3+ or above

    • Single station buy can enhance higher average frequency than multi-station buy


Reach frequency optimization3

Reach / Frequency Optimization

  • Example 2 : 6 spots schedule in different station buy

    GRPsAve. Freq.1+2+3+4+

    SHTV only 47 1.50321032

    SHTV / OTV 52 1.30521511


Reach frequency optimization4

Reach / Frequency Optimization

  • Same budget spot schedule with different prime/fringe ratio will deliver different R&F distribution

    • Combination of prime / fringe buy will maximize both net reach and ave. frequency than sole prime time buy

    • Prime / fringe combination is also more cost efficient (in term of CPRP) than sole prime time buy


Reach frequency optimization5

Reach / Frequency Optimization

  • Example 3 : RMB 136,000 budget plan in a prime time buy and a prime/fringe combination

    GRPsAve. Freq.1+2+3+4+5+

    Prime only 68 1.35215110

    Prime/fringe 136 1.970401562

    (82/18 split in budget, 55/45 split in rating)


Reach frequency optimization6

Reach / Frequency Optimization

  • Other ways to optimize R&F delivery

    • 1 spot per day in SHTV (6 days) maximizes 1+

    • 2 consecutive spots per day (3 days) maximizes 2+

    • 3 consecutive spots per day (2 days) maximizes 3+

    • 6 consecutive spots a day (1 day) maximizes 4+ and above and have highest ave. frequency within all of the above schedules


Reach frequency optimization7

Reach / Frequency Optimization

  • Example 4 : Different no. of spots per day

    GRPsAve. Freq.1+2+3+4+5+

    1 spot/day 45 1.4339211

    2 spots/day 43 1.62711211

    3 spots/day 48 1.62911421

    6 spots 1 day 45 1.7269532


Tv optimization software

Super-Midas & X-pert

TV Optimization Software


Continuity

Continuity

  • Further to the determined planning units, how often should this advertising weight be repeated ?

  • For fixed budget, the choices could be :

    • Low weight, more weeks

    • High weight, less weeks

  • Factors to consider

    • Sales response

    • Seasonality

    • Competitive presence

    • Decay factor


Continuity1

Continuity

  • Decay Factor

    • the rate at which spontaneous brand awareness declines after advertising stops

    • Rapid rate : new brands

      highly competitive

      clutter environment

    • Slow rate :well-established brand

      generic product

      high interest level product


Continuity2

Reach

New Product

Promotion

Product with high market turnover

Frequency / Continuity

Product aims at micro marketing

Mature product

Product with short purchasing cycle

Continuity

  • With limited media budget, it is impossible to maximize the three of reach, frequency and continuity. Priority should be considered according to different situation


Our point of view

Our Point of View


There are no absolutes in media planning

There are No Absolutes in Media Planning


Summary

Summary

  • Media planners do not always have to make an absolute choice between effective frequency and recency: the answer is not always high frequency and bursts, nor always low weight and continuity


Summary1

Summary

  • Recency is a discipline of media planning, just like effective frequency is - but just one discipline. They form part of the equation: they are not the full sum in their own right

  • Role of media is to ensure that the


Summarycommunication is distributed to a target audience effectively and efficiently

Summarycommunication is distributed to a target audience effectively and efficiently.

  • What we need to do is to apply the discipline, consider other variables like share of voice, campaign stage, etc use the common sense and make your own logical judgement.

  • The effective level will vary by category, brand, campaign and markets.


Summary2

Summary

Media is a science. Media is an art .


Thank you

ThankYou !


Media training

如何选择媒体

二零零二年二月


Media training

如何判断媒介计划的质量

最低廉的投放成本

最有效的投放效果


Media training

现有媒体分析

主要媒体

1.电视2.报纸

3.杂志 4.户外

5.电台 6.因特网

7.电影院


Media training

现有媒体分析


Media training

媒体的地理性策略因素(一)

  • 产品地区发展策略

  • 品牌铺货状况及进展

  • 目标受众人口数量

  • 经济发展状况


Media training

媒体的地理性策略因素(二)

  • 销售成长趋势

  • 品牌市场占有率与获利经验

  • 品牌过去所累积的资产

  • 市场对传播的反应

  • 媒体投资效率


Media training

媒体的基本概念

  • 收视率(Rating)- 在一个节目中,看到过这个广告的人的百分比。(GRP)

  • 目标受众收视点(TARP)- 目标受众中看到这个广告的人的百分比。(即目标受众的GRP)


Media training

媒体的基本概念

  • 到达率(Reach)- 在一定的期间内(通常指的是4周),暴露于任何广告至少一次的非重复性人口比率。

  • 单位收视点成本(CPRP)- 电视广告每GRP所需花费金额。

  • 千人收视成本(CPM)-每到达1000个人所花费的广告金额。


Media training

到达率

例:1+ 到达率 = 第一次收视率+第二次收视率

- 重复收视率

spot 1

spot 2


Media training

媒体的基本概念

  • 接触频次(Frequency)- 在一定期间内,接触广告的对象消费者的接触次数。

    • 平均接触频次(AF) - 接触广告的对象消费者中,平均每个人的接触次数。

    • 有效接触频次 (EF)- 对消费者达到广告诉求目的所需要的广告露出频率


Media training

平均频次

  • 接触广告的对象消费者中,平均每个人的接触次数。

2 x

3 x


Media training

平均频次 = 总收视点 /到达率


Media training

例子

  • 请观察下附投放排期;

  • 目标受众 : 15 – 49岁人群

    ExampleTARPs

    Spot 1: 15

    Spot 2: 20

    Spot 3: 11

    Spot 4: 30

    Spot 5: 8

    Spot 6: 26

    110


Media training

例子

  • 目标受众 : 15 – 49岁人群

Total TARPs=110

Reach (1+)=64%

Ave. Freq.=1.7


15 49

到达率和到达频次的曲线目标受众 : 15 – 49岁人群

Reach (%)

1+

2+

3+

GRPs


Media training

为什么重要 ?

  • 对于客户 :评估广告的投放效率

  • 对于策划 :测算出达到最佳广告投放效率所需的足够预算金额

  • 对于购买 :便于精确测算以达到最优化的媒体购买行为


Media training

如何选择媒体

  • 以提高品牌知名度为目的:

    • 高到达率

    • 广告的持续性

  • 以提高品牌认知度为目的:

    • 高的有效到达频率频次

    • 提高CPRP


Media training

以实例介绍媒介工作

  • 可口可乐Vs.百事可乐在中国

    • 品牌背景:

      • 可口可乐形象为传统型,进入中国较早

      • 百事可乐形象为时尚型,进入中国较迟

    • 地域影响:

      • 从北至南市场占有率可口可乐由强至弱,而百事可乐由弱至强。由市场背景影响。

      • 可口可乐/百事可乐,在北京:8/2;在上海:5/5;在广州:2/8

      • 导致通路状况各异


Media training

以实例介绍媒介工作

  • 可口可乐Vs.百事可乐在中国

    • 投放效果:

      • 在相应市场的弱势品牌必须保持的,有竞争力度的广告,才能维持现有市场,并有少量拓展

      • 如强势品牌以相同力度投放,市场将轻易收回

      • 必须策划和执行一些活动配合广告投放,效果才能显著

    • 投放策略:

      • 根据不同的品牌背景购买相应的媒体、节目

      • 在相应市场的弱势品牌必须掌握投放的提前量

      • 依据自身的市场现状合理调配投放,不要无谓的浪费资源


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