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How Many Ways Can 945 Be Written as the Difference of Squares?. An introduction to the mathematical way of thinking. by Dr. Mark Faucette. Department of Mathematics University of West Georgia. Mathematical research begins, above all else, with curiosity.

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How many ways can 945 be written as the difference of squares

How Many Ways Can 945 Be Written as the Difference of Squares?

An introduction to the mathematical way of thinking


By dr mark faucette

by Dr. Mark Faucette Squares?

Department of Mathematics

University of West Georgia


The nature of mathematical research

Mathematical research begins, above all else, with curiosity.

Mathematicians are people who constantly ask themselves questions.

The Nature of Mathematical Research


The nature of mathematical research1

Most of these questions require a considerable mathematical background, but many do not.

As long as you’re inquisitive, you can always find problems to ask.

The Nature of Mathematical Research


Questions questions

Questions, Questions background, but many do not.


Questions questions1

Let background, but many do not.’s start with a question anyone can understand:

Which numbers can be written as a difference of two squares of numbers?

Questions, Questions


Ponder the possibilities

Which numbers can be written as a difference of two squares of numbers?

Let’s think of some examples:

Ponder the Possibilities


Thinking like the ancient greeks

Thinking Like The of numbers?Ancient Greeks


Thinking like the greeks
Thinking Like The Greeks of numbers?

The ancient Greeks didn’t have algebra as a tool. When the ancient Greeks talked about squares, they meant geometric squares.


Thinking like the greeks1

For instance, here is the picture of how Pythagoras reached the theorem which bears his name.

Thinking Like The Greeks


Thinking like the greeks2
Thinking Like The Greeks the theorem which bears his name.

First, draw a square of side length a and a square of side length b side by side as shown.


Thinking like the greeks3
Thinking Like The Greeks the theorem which bears his name.

Next, measure b units from the corner of the first square along the bottom side.

Connect that point to the upper left corner of the larger square and the upper right corner of the smaller square.


Thinking like the greeks4
Thinking Like The Greeks the theorem which bears his name.

Notice that we now have two congruent right triangles.

The sides of the triangles are colored pink and the hypoteni are colored green.


Thinking like the greeks5
Thinking Like The Greeks the theorem which bears his name.

Now, detach those two right triangles from the picture.


Thinking like the greeks6
Thinking Like The Greeks the theorem which bears his name.

Slide the triangle at the bottom left to the upper right.

Slide the triangle at the bottom right to the upper left.


Thinking like the greeks7
Thinking Like The Greeks the theorem which bears his name.

Notice these two triangles complete the picture to form a square of side length c, which we have colored green.


Difference of squares

Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.


Difference of squares1
Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.

Let’s think about our problem the way the ancient Greeks might have.

We start with any odd number, say 2k+1 for some natural number k.


Difference of squares2
Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.

First, draw k dots in a horizontal row.


Difference of squares3
Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.

Next, draw k dots in a vertical row, one unit to the left and one unit above the horizontal row.

This gives 2k dots.


Difference of squares4
Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.

Put the last of the 2k+1 dots at the corner where the row and column meet.

This gives all our 2k+1 dots.


Difference of squares5
Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.

Now, we have a right angle with k+1 dots on each side.


Difference of squares6
Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.

Complete this picture to a square by filling in the rest of the dots.


Difference of squares7
Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.

From this picture, we see that the 2k+1 red dots can be written as the number of dots in the larger square minus the number of dots in the smaller, yellow square.


Difference of squares8
Difference of Squares the theorem which bears his name.

By this argument, the ancient Greeks would conclude that any odd number (greater than one) can be written as the difference of two squares. (Then again, 1=12-02.)


Difference of squares9

In modern terms, we have shown using diagrams of dots the equation at right:

So, we see that any odd number can be written as the difference of two squares.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares10

Can 2 be written as the difference of two squares? equation at right:

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares11

Suppose this is true for some whole numbers equation at right:n and m.

Then we can factor the left side as the difference of two squares.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares12

Since equation at right:n and m are both whole numbers and we must have n>m, we see that n+m and n-m are both natural numbers.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares13

Since 2 is prime, it follows that equation at right:n+m=2 and n-m=1.

Adding these two equations, we get 2n=3, which means n is not a whole number.

This contradiction shows n and m don’t exist.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares14
Difference of Squares equation at right:

So, 2 can’t be written as the difference of squares.


What have we learned

What Have We Learned? equation at right:


What have we learned1
What Have We Learned? equation at right:

Well, so far, we’ve learned that every odd number can be written as the difference of two squares, but 2 cannot.


Questions questions2

Questions, Questions equation at right:


Questions questions3

Our result has led us to a number of new questions: equation at right:

Can some even number be written as a difference of squares?

If so, which ones can?

Questions, Questions


Questions questions4

We already know the answer to the first question: The answer is given in our examples.

Questions, Questions


Difference of squares15

So, let answer is given in our examples.’s ask the second question:

Which even numbers can be written as the difference of squares?

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares16

Let answer is given in our examples.’s suppose that an even number, 2k, can be written as the difference of squares of whole numbers n and m:

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares17

Let answer is given in our examples.’s try factoring the left side again and see what that tells us:

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares18

Since the right side is even, the left side must also be even.

By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, either n+m or n-m is even.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares19

Suppose even.n+m is even. Then

n+m = 2j

for some whole number j.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares20

Then the following computation shows that if even.n+m is even, then n-m must also be even.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares21

Looking back at our original assumption, since both even.n+m and n-m are even, the even number on the right must actually be divisible by 4.

Difference of Squares



What have we learned3

We even.’ve learned that every odd number can be written as a difference of squares.

We’ve learned that if an even number can be written as the difference of squares, it must be divisible by 4.

What Have We Learned?



Questions questions6

Now we can refine our last question to this: even.

Can every natural number divisible by 4 be written as a difference of squares?

Questions, Questions


Difference of squares22

Once again, let even.’s take an arbitrary natural number which is divisible by 4 and suppose it can be written as a difference of squares:

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares23

Let even.’s try factoring the left side again and see what that tells us:

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares24

Notice that the right side of this equation is divisible by 4. So the left side of this equation must also be divisible by 4.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares25

By an argument similar to what we did for 2, if 4. So the left side of this equation must also be divisible by 4.n-m is even, then n+m must also be even.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares26

Since the right side is divisible by 4, we may choose two factors, s and t, of 4k so that both s and t are even.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares27

Then, we have these equations: factors,

Comparing these, we see that we can set s=n+m and t=n-m and solve for n and m.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares28

So, we have this system of equations and we factors, ’re looking for integer solutions:

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares29

The solution is given by the equations at right. factors,

Notice that n and m are integers since both s and t are even.

Difference of Squares



What have we learned5

We factors, ’ve learned that an even number can be written as the difference of squares if and only if it is a multiple of 4.

What Have We Learned?



Questions questions8

Now we can ask one last question: factors,

How many ways can numbers be written as differences of squares?

Questions, Questions


Difference of squares30

Let factors, ’s answer this question first for an odd number 2k+1.

We already know it can be written as the difference of two squares of numbers n and m.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares31

Choose any factors factors, s and t of 2k+1 so that s ≥ t and st=2k+1.

If either s or t were even, then the product st=2k+1 would be even, so it follows that s and t are both odd.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares32

So, if we set factors, s=n+m and t=n-m and solve the resulting system for n and m, we get the following solution:

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares33

Since factors, s and t are both odd, both n and m are whole numbers.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares34

So, for any pair of factors factors, s and t with s ≥ t and st=2k+1, we get a pair of whole numbers n and m so that 2k+1 is the difference n2-m2.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares35

Conversely, for any pair of whole numbers factors, n and m so that 2k+1 is the difference n2-m2, then we get factors s and t with s ≥ t and st=2k+1.

Difference of Squares



Difference of squares36

First, we list all the factors of 945 paired so that the product of each pair is 945:

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares37

These are all the possible pairs product of each pair is 945:s and t so that st=945.

Difference of Squares


Difference of squares38

Setting product of each pair is 945:n=(s+t)/2 and m=(s-t)/2, we get eight ways to write 945 as the difference of squares:

And these are all the ways in which 945 can be written as the difference of two squares.

Difference of Squares


Questions questions9

Questions, Questions product of each pair is 945:


Questions questions10

Now, I product of each pair is 945:’ll leave you with one last question: How many different ways can an even number be written as the difference of two squares?

Questions, Questions


Why do we care

Why Do We Care? product of each pair is 945:


Why do we care1

Personally, I care because it product of each pair is 945:’s fun to think about these things. I consider it a kind of mental gymnastics. You know, it’s sort of like calisthentics for the mind.

Why Do We Care?


Why do we care2

If you don product of each pair is 945:’t like that answer, let me offer you a question which is equally easy to state which has a real reason to solve:

Why Do We Care?


Why do we care3
Why Do We Care? product of each pair is 945:

Question: Can every even number greater than 2 be written as the sum of two prime numbers?


Why do we care4
Why Do We Care? product of each pair is 945:

Examples: 4 = 2 + 2

6 = 3 + 3

8 = 3 + 5

154 = 151 + 3

1062 = 1051 + 11


Why do we care5

Before you think too hard about this one, this question is a famous one in number theory and is known as the (Modern) Goldbach Conjecture.

Why Do We Care?


Why do we care6

It was originally posed in a letter from Christian Goldbach to Leonhard Euler in 1742.

Why Do We Care?


Why do we care7

The Goldbach Conjecture has been investigated for all even numbers up to 4 times 1011.

So far, no counterexamples have been found.

Why Do We Care?


Why do we care8

Now, 252 years after it was first posed, The Goldbach Conjecture is still unsolved.

Why Do We Care?


Why do we care9

However, if you ask why anyone would care about this problem, there is a one million dollar prize for a correct mathematical solution of this conjecture.

Why Do We Care?


I care

Now there are a million reasons to major in mathematics! problem, there is a one million dollar prize for a correct mathematical solution of this conjecture.

I Care!


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