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Diagnosis of Death Masterclass. Alex Manara Dale Gardiner Paul Murphy 31 March 2010. “Improving organ donation within your hospital”. 1. 2. Diagnosis of Death Masterclass The six big wins. 3. 2. Increased diagnosis of brain stem death. 3. Increased donation after cardiac death.

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Diagnosis of death masterclass

Diagnosis of Death Masterclass

Alex Manara

Dale Gardiner

Paul Murphy

31 March 2010

“Improving organ donation within your hospital”

1


Diagnosis of death masterclass

2


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Diagnosis of Death MasterclassThe six big wins

3


Diagnosis of death masterclass

2. Increased diagnosis of brain stem death

3. Increased donation after cardiac death

Diagnosis of Death Masterclass

4


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Incidence of Brainstem Death on ICU

(< 75 years, non-cardiac ICUs)


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Incidence of Brainstem Death on ICU

(< 75 years, non-cardiac ICUs)

  • 350 missed potential donors

  • 172 actual donors

  • 619 additional transplanted patients

  • Extra 2.8 donors pmp


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Reasons for not testing (approx 350 / year)

Diagnosis of Brainstem Death


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Diagnosis of Brainstem Death


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Is NHBD organ donation maximised in the UK?

  • The Potential Donor Audit has been assessing the potential for NHBD in the UK for the last five years. The map below shows NHB donor numbers by DTC region for 2009.

  • Significant regional variation

    • Only 50% of suitable patients given the option of NHBD

  • Significant clinical variation

    • Diagnosis of death

    • warm ischaemic times

    • organ retrieval

9


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Aims:

Promote national consistency in the use of the criteria used to diagnose death.

You to feel confident in the criteria used to diagnose death whilst being alert to potential pitfalls.

For you to be aware of potential criticisms by colleagues and the literature and have thought about possible counter arguments.

10


Agenda

Agenda


A defence of the british criteria

A Defence of the British Criteria

Dale Gardiner

12


30 years on

30 years on…

13


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Critics

Edmund Pellegrino

Margaret Lock

Alan Shewmon

UK critics

David EvansDavid Hill

Philip Keep

Peter Singer

Rinaldo Bellomo

14


Diagnosis of death masterclass

15


Criteria for human death

= The irreversible cessation of brain-stem function

=> Irreversible unconsciousness + Irreversible apnoea

Criteria for Human Death

=> intra-cranial or extra-cranial cause

=> 5 mins absent cerebral circulation

DO NOT restore Cerebral Circulation

16


Diagnosis of death masterclass

17


Diagnosis of death masterclass

18


Diagnosis of death masterclass

  • Transplant Technique

    • Split livers

    • Marginal Donors

  • Immunosuppressants

    • Tacrolimus

    • Mycophenolate

19


Diagnosis of death masterclass

20


Diagnosis of death masterclass

The Concept of Brain Death Did Not Evolve to Benefit Organ Transplants.

Transplants

Brain Death

1st Renal auto-Tx

(unsuccessful)

1902

Cushing

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

21


Diagnosis of death masterclass

The Concept of Brain Death Did Not Evolve to Benefit Organ Transplants.

Transplants

Brain Death

1902

  • EEG discovered

  • In electric potential = Death

  • Loss cortical potentials seen in ischaemia

1st xeno-Tx (unsuccessful)

Transplants

Transplants

1st Renal cadaveric Tx

(unsuccessful)

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

1950

Transplants

22


Diagnosis of death masterclass

The Concept of Brain Death Did Not Evolve to Benefit Organ Transplants.

Transplants

Brain Death

1950

Cessation of brain blood flow = Death

Cortical circulatory arrest seen in coma patients

1st successful live Renal Tx

Transplants

Death of the nervous system = Coma dépassé

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

1960

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

23


Diagnosis of death masterclass

The Concept of Brain Death Did Not Evolve to Benefit Organ Transplants.

Transplants

Brain Death

1960

1st successful cadaveric Renal Tx

Irreversible cessation of the EEG

= Death

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

24


Diagnosis of death masterclass

The Concept of Brain Death Did Not Evolve to Benefit Organ Transplants.

Transplants

Brain Death

1967-68

1st successful Heart Tx

Harvard Criteria

Brain Death = DEATH

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

25


Diagnosis of death masterclass

3rd December 1967

26


Ad hoc committee of the harvard medical school jama 5th aug 1968

Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical SchoolJAMA5th Aug 1968

27


Diagnosis of death masterclass

28


Diagnosis of death masterclass

‘Our Primary purpose is to define irreversible coma as a new criterion for death……Obsolete criteria for the definition of death can lead to controversy in obtaining organs for transplantation.’

29


Diagnosis of death masterclass

The Concept of Brain Death Did Not Evolve to Benefit Organ Transplants.

Transplants

Brain Death

Future

1st xeno Tx

1st lab grown organ Tx

Brain Death = DEATH

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

Transplants

30


Diagnosis of death masterclass

31


Diagnosis of death masterclass

32


Diagnosis of death masterclass

diagnosis decision

33


Diagnosis of death masterclass

34


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Whole Brain Death

Rest of the World

Brain Stem Death

UK

Higher Brain Death

Philosophers

35


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Higher Brain Death

Philosophers

Peter Singer

36


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Whole Brain Death

Rest of the World

Rinaldo Bellomo

ICM 2004

37


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Brain Stem Death

UK

38


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Whole Brain Death

Rest of the World

39


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Whole Brain Death

Rest of the World

40


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Whole Brain Death

Rest of the World

41


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Brain Stem Death

UK

42


Diagnosis of death masterclass

43


Diagnosis of death masterclass

NEJM 2010

44


Diagnosis of death masterclass

45


Diagnosis of death masterclass

DEAD

ALIVE

46


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Brain Stem Death

UK

47


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Brain Stem Death

UK

48


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Brain Stem Death

UK

49


Diagnosis of death masterclass

50


Diagnosis of death masterclass

51


Diagnosis of death masterclass

D. Alan Shewmon, MD

52


Diagnosis of death masterclass

53


Diagnosis of death masterclass

54


Diagnosis of death masterclass

55


Doctors fight to save brain dead mom s foetus for 3 months

Doctors fight to save brain-dead mom’s foetus...… for 3½ months

56


Diagnosis of death masterclass

57


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Whole Brain Death

Rest of the World

58


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Brain Stem Death

UK

59


Diagnosis of death masterclass

The inferior hypophysial artery is an artery supplying the posterior pituitary gland. It is a branch of the cavernous carotid artery (internal carotid artery) which is extradural at this point.

60


Diagnosis of death masterclass

61


Diagnosis of death masterclass

62


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Whole Brain Death

Rest of the World

63


Criteria for human death1

= The irreversible cessation of brain-stem function

=> Irreversible unconsciousness + Irreversible apnoea

Criteria for Human Death

64


Alan shewmon md

Alan Shewmon MD

65


Diagnosis of death masterclass

‘Although we were unable to restore his consciousness or spontaneous breathing, the boy lived several more years.’ (page 195)

66


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Brain Stem Death

UK

67


Diagnosis of death masterclass

68


Diagnosis of death masterclass

trauma unit

PET scan brain

United Regional

Healthcare System

Wichita Falls, Texas

no blood flowing

69


Diagnosis of death masterclass

70


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Regions only Level III Trauma Centre

71


Diagnosis of death masterclass

USA Trauma Center

Level I - Highest

to

Level III - Lowest

72


Diagnosis of death masterclass

73


Diagnosis of death masterclass

>

74


Diagnosis of death masterclass

75


Diagnosis of death masterclass

76


Criteria for human death2

= The irreversible cessation of brain-stem function

=> Irreversible unconsciousness + Irreversible apnoea

Criteria for Human Death

=> intra-cranial or extra-cranial cause

=> 5 mins absent cerebral circulation

DO NOT restore Cerebral Circulation

77


Diagnosis of death masterclass

75 seconds, 2 minutes, 5 minutes

2 minutes

5 minutes

78


Dr michael devita university of pittsburgh

Dr Michael DeVitaUniversity of Pittsburgh

79


Diagnosis of death masterclass

3.7 days old donor

Taken to the operating room

Lined and given heparin

Extubated & sedated

Waited 75 seconds of PEA

“Best interests of the recipient”

80


Diagnosis of death masterclass

81


Diagnosis of death masterclass

82


Diagnosis of death masterclass

One Thousand One Hundred and Seven NHBD

83


Diagnosis of death masterclass

DEAD

ALIVE

84


Diagnosis of death masterclass

85


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Questions?

86


Quiz dead or not dead

Quiz: Dead or not Dead?

87


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 1

The patient flexes their arm at the elbow following imposition of a painful stimulus to the nail bed on that side?

  • Dead - May represent a spinal reflex

88


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 2

The ventilator registers the patient as making spontaneous respirations?

  • Dead - May represent the heart beat creating flow that is triggering ventilation

89


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 3

The patient has a generalised tonic clonic seizure?

  • NOT brain stem dead – the patient must have intact neural connections to have a grand mal fit

90


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 4

The patient’s pulse increases from 70bpm to 110 bpm during apnoea testing?

  • Dead - Hypercarbia (which occurs during apnoea testing) results in endogenous adrenaline release.

91


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 5

There is slow drift of one eye away from the ear in which cold water is injected?

  • NOT brain stem dead – any eye movements in response to caloric testing signifies the presence of some reflex brain stem arc function.

92


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 6

The patient sits up during apnoea testing (Lazarus sign)?

  • Dead - A spinal reaction to the acidosis which follows hypercarbia. Very unsettling and disturbing!

93


Diagnosis of death masterclass

How are you going?

These six questions were asked in the Australian JFICM exam 2008 and the pass rate was only 65%!

94


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 7

During an apnoea test on a mechanical ventilator after 20 seconds the patient starts to breathe and then continues to breathe at 16 breaths per minute?

  • Dead – ventilator apnoea ventilation has kicked in. Are you convinced not to do your apnoea tests still connected to the ventilator?

95


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 8

Supra-orbital painful stimulus leads to movement in one of the arms?

  • Not dead – although one primarily looks for movement in the cranial nerve distribution one must actively ensure (by repetition) that this was a coincidental spinal reflex but until proven this may represent the patient is not brain stem dead.

96


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 9

During the second set of brain stem testing the second clinician finds the ears full of wax and can't visualise the drum?

  • Not dead – this finding may invalidate the first oculovestibular test and thus the patient may not be dead.

97


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 10

Due to left orbital trauma you can't visualise or observe the left eye?

  • Dead – may still be dead even if one can’t carry out the full test. Some of the options we discuss in our case based discussions after morning tea.

98


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Question 11

After a complete set of brain stem tests, confirming clinical brain stem death, your colleague organises a CT angiogram which reveals persisting intracerebral blood flow?

  • Dead – Brain Stem Death is the UK Criteria

99


The confirmation of death

The Confirmation of Death

Alex ManaraICU Frenchay Hospital

100


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Confirmation vs. Certification

101


Diagnosis of death masterclass

600,000 UK deaths per annum

102


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Confirming Death

  • Cessation of heart beat

  • Cessation of breathing

  • Unresponsiveness

  • Relatively easy to make

  • Reproducible

  • Recognizable

103


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Confirming Death

104


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Confirming Death: Most doctors.

“YOU’RE DEAD WHEN YOU’VE GOT NO HEART SOUNDS, NO BREATHE SOUNDS AND FIXED DILATED PUPILS”

105


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Confirming Death: Neurosurgeons...

“YOU’RE DEAD WHEN YOUR BRAIN IS DEAD”

106


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Confirming Death: Orthopods...

“YOU’RE DEAD WHEN YOU’RE COLD, BLUE AND STIFF”

107


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Confirming Death: What the public think...

“YOU’RE DEAD WHEN YOUR HEART STOPS”

108


Diagnosis of death masterclass

The Law

  • There is no statutory definition of death in the United Kingdom (Unlike USA)

  • The determination of death using neurological criteria has been accepted by the courts of England and Wales.

  • Otherwise you’re dead when a doctor says so = accepted medical practice

109


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Variation in Practice

110


Diagnosis of death masterclass

What is accepted medical practice?

111


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Definition of death

“The irreversible loss of those essential characteristics which are necessary to the existence of a living human person”

=

“The irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness, combined with the irreversible loss of the capacity to breathe”

112


Diagnosis of death masterclass

All Death is Brain Death

  • 1. Cardio-respiratory determination of death

  • 2. Neurological determination of death

  • 3. Somatic determination of death

113


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Cardio-respiratory criteria

“The heart and lung are not important as basic prerequisites to continue life but rather because the irreversible cessation of their functions shows that the brain has ceased functioning”

114


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Cardio-respiratory criteria

  • Need to be applicable to primary care / out of hospital setting

  • Simultaneous and irreversible onset of apnoea, and unconsciousness in the absence of a circulation.

  • Irreversible cessation of brain stem function rapidly follows

115


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Preconditions for cardiac criteria

  • Decision made to abandon CPR

  • The individual meets the criteria for not attempting CPR (ROLE)

  • Active treatment is being withdrawn as declared not in the patient’s best interests

  • Patient has an advance directive refusing CPR

116


Diagnosis of death masterclass

At “asystole”

  • Person confirming death present and continuously observes apnoea, asystole and unresponsiveness for a minimum of 5 minutes

  • Absent circulation confirmed clinically or with monitors

  • Return of circulation or respiration prompts start of a further 5 minutes from point of next cardio-respiratory arrest

  • Confirm absent pupillary and corneal reflexes and no central response to pain

117


Diagnosis of death masterclass

At “asystole”

  • Person confirming death present and continuously observes apnoea, asystole and unresponsiveness for a minimum of 5 minutes

  • Absent circulation confirmed clinically or with monitors

  • Return of circulation or respiration prompts start of a further 5 minutes from point of next cardio-respiratory arrest

  • Confirm absent pupillary and corneal reflexes and no central response to pain

118


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Irreversibility

  • Heart will not be restarted because patient not for CPR

  • Cardiac activity will not resume spontaneously

  • Cannot be restarted even with CPR

No post-mortem procedures that have the potential to restore cerebral perfusion

119


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Post mortem Interventions

http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_108827.pdf

120


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Post Mortem Interventions

Anything that places the person at risk of serious harm or distress is unlikely ever to be in the person’s best interests. (CPR, femoral cannulation, heparinisation)

121


Diagnosis of death masterclass

International Differences

  • 2 minutes

    • Pittsburgh protocol 1993

    • ANZICS

  • Minimum of 2 minutes, no more than 5 minutes recommended

    • Society of Critical Care Medicine, USA

  • Minimum of 5 minutes:

    • Academy of Medical Royal Colleges UK

    • Intensive Care Society, UK

    • Institute of Medicine, USA

    • Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation

  • Minimum of 10 minutes

    • Maastricht Conference, Holland

122


Diagnosis of death masterclass

123


Diagnosis of death masterclass

80 year old male with pancreatitis, cerebral infarction and MRSA sepsis

CPR abandoned - Doctor went to shower

IPPV continued

ROSC noted on return at 5 minutes

Patient died 2 days later

124


Diagnosis of death masterclass

UK Deceased Organ Donors

In past 10 years there have been 1138 NHBDs

125


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Organ Donation USA

In USA approx 3000 NHBDs (2 min – 5 min)

126


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Lazarus?

Is auto-resuscitation a result of not having a standardised way of confirming death and also defining what can and cannot happen after death?

127


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

128


Diagnosis of death masterclass

History

  • Improved ICU care of comatose patients

  • Coma depassé described in Paris in 1959

  • Deep irreversible coma

  • Nearly always followed by cardiac arrest

129


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Cardiac Prognosis After NDD

  • Pallis 1987: 1300 patients all developed cardiorespiratory arrest even with full support

  • Hung et al 1995:

  • 73 adults and children

  • Full and continued CVS support

  • All became asystolic; within 10 days

130


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Rationale for New Guidelines

  • Variable practice when guidelines not specific

  • Guidelines not always followed even when specific

131


Diagnosis of death masterclass

New Guidelines

  • Published 2008

  • Attempts further standardisation

  • Primarily a clinical diagnosis

  • Clinical judgement still required

132


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

1. Patient in deep apnoeic coma

133


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

2. Known cause capable of causing ND

134


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

3. No reversible causes / confounding factors

  • Primary hypothermia

  • Metabolic disturbances

  • Alcohol

  • Depressant drugs

  • Muscle relaxants

135


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

3. No reversible causes / confounding factors - Metabolic

  • Temperature > 34o C

  • Na+ < 160 mmol/L

  • K+ > 2 mmol/L

  • Glucose > 3 mmol/L < 20mmol/L

  • Phosphate > 0.5 mmol/L < 3 mmol/L

  • Magnesium

  • Serum Na+ > 115mmol/L?

136


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

3. No reversible causes / confounding factors - Sedatives

  • Clinical judgement essential

  • Impossible to create rules covering every situation

  • Difficulties mainly with thiopentone and midazolam

  • Plasma concentrations not good predictors of effect

  • Use of antagonists may help

  • Ideally use non cumulative drugs – propofol, remifentanil

137


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

4. Absent brainstem reflexes

138


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

Apnoea Test

  • Must be done last after other reflexes absent

  • Undertaken no more than twice

  • Achieve CVS stability at PaCO2 > 6kPa before disconnection

  • Disconnect for 5 minutes

  • Return PaCO2 to normal on reconnection

139


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Neurological Determination of Death in UK

5. Ancillary Tests

  • 4 vessel cerebral angiography

  • CT angiography

  • MRI angiography

  • EEG

  • TCD

  • SPECT

  • Brain stem evoked potentials

  • Response to 2mg atropine

  • ICP > MAP

140


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Whole Brain Death ?

http://video.bloodservices.ca/Streaming/nddvideo/

141


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Reducing Variability in Practice

  • Guidelines – Helpful but limited value

  • CLODs – Professional Development Programme

  • Development of international approach to confirmation

  • Prospective observational studies on onset of asystole

142


Case study activity

Case Study Activity

143


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Case Study Exercise

  • We have 2 case studies which we would like you to discuss and respond to in your table groups

  • You each have a handout of the 2 case studies which provide a case context and a series of questions

  • We will spend 30 mins total on each case study, 15mins to discuss & answer questions and15 mins to feedback as a wider group

  • This part of the session will take an hour to complete and will be followed by a more general Q&A

144


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Case Study 1

  • A middle-aged woman presents to your Emergency Department at 1600 after collapsing at home. She has fixed pupils and is intubated without drugs. CT head reveals catastrophic subarachnoid haemorrhage. Neurosurgical opinion is that this is an unsurvivable situation and withdrawal of life sustaining treatment is advised. The family approach the ED staff suggesting their relative would wish to be an organ donor. Brain death is suspected.

145


Diagnosis of death masterclass

Case Study 2

  • A young man is admitted to your neuro-critical care unit with severe traumatic brain injury. Despite aggressive treatment his pupils fix after four days and irreversible cessation of brain stem function (brain stem death) is suspected.

  • He has received substantial doses of sedatives (midazolam, alfentanil and propofol).

146


Questions

Questions???

147


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