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Commercial uses of cells. Intermediate 2 Biology Unit 1: Living Cells. Learning Objectives. To revise knowledge on cell variety and cell structure Revise the function of nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole.

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commercial uses of cells

Commercial uses of cells

Intermediate 2 Biology

Unit 1: Living Cells

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • To revise knowledge on cell variety and cell structure
  • Revise the function of nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole.
  • To revise anaerobic respiration / fermentation in yeast
  • Revise the use of fungi to make antibiotics
  • Revise yoghurt production
  • Revise biogas and gasohol production
cell structure and function
Cell Structure and Function
  • Why is the cell described as the basic unit of life?
  • Name three structural features that a typical plant cell and a typical animal cell have in common.
  • Name three structural features present in an Elodea leaf cell but absent from a cheek epithelial cell.
  • Give the function of each of the following structures: cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus.
commercial and industrial uses of cells
Commercial and Industrial Uses of Cells
  • Give the word equations for aerobic and anaerobic respiration in yeast.
  • Describe the role of carbon dioxide in bread making
  • Write a simple word equation to summarise the process of malting in barley grains about to be used in the brewing of beer.
  • Copy the following sentences choosing the correct answer from each choice in brackets:
    • During the production of yoghurt, (bacteria/yeast) respire (aerobically/anaerobically) and convert (maltose/lactose) to (lactic acid/alcohol). This chemical brings about the coagulation of milk (proteins/sugars) and acts as (an antibiotic/a preservative).
commercial use of micro organisms
Commercial use of Micro-organisms
  • Microbes used commercially and in industry are:
    • Fungi
      • bread making, brewing, gasohol (alternative fuel) and antibiotics
    • Bacteria
      • yoghurt production and biogas (methane gas)
gasohol and yeast
GASOHOL AND YEAST
  • Alcohol and Gasohol are renewable fuels.
  • Alcohol is produced in fermentation
  • When yeast ferments sugar, alcohol is produced, but in small amounts.
  • The alcohol can be separated from the fermentation mixture by distillation. Alcohol is flammable and can be used as a fuel.
  • If Alcohol is mixed with petrol it produces gasohol
biogas and bacteria
BIOGAS AND BACTERIA
  • Some bacteria produce methane gas in conditions where oxygen concentrations are low.
  • This gas is rich in chemical energy and can be burned. This is biogas.
  • Biogas can be produced from organic waste and is a gas produced by decaying rubbish
commercial and industrial uses of cells yeast summary
Commercial and Industrial uses of cells – YEAST SUMMARY
  • Bread making
    • anaerobic respiration in yeast produces carbon dioxide which makes the dough rise.
  • Alcohol production
    • fermentation (anaerobic respiration) in yeast produces alcohol. The sugar comes from malted barley or fruit.
  • Alternative fuels
    • When alcohol is mixed with petrol it is gasohol
commercial and industrial uses of cells bacteria summary
Commercial and Industrial uses of cells – BACTERIA SUMMARY
  • Yogurt production
    • bacteria convert the sugar (lactose) in milk into lactic acid. The lactic acid causes the milk to thicken and curdle.
  • Alternative fuels
    • Bacteria ferment (anaerobic respiration waste products and produce methane gas.
    • This is called Biogas
5 mark questions labelled diagrams may be included where appropriate
5 Mark QuestionsLabelled diagrams may be included where appropriate.
  • Describe how cells are used in the production of yoghurt and alternative fuel. Include in your answer for both, the type of cell used, the substrates and the products.( Int 2 2005)
  • Describe the function of yeast in bread making and the anaerobic pathway of respiration involved in this process. (Int 2 2008)
question 5 marks
Question – 5 marks
  • The diagram below shows a container used for home wine production.
  • Describe the anaerobic pathway of respiration which results in wine production in this container.
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