Commercial uses of cells
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Commercial uses of cells. Intermediate 2 Biology Unit 1: Living Cells. Learning Objectives. To revise knowledge on cell variety and cell structure Revise the function of nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole.

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Commercial uses of cells

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Commercial uses of cells

Intermediate 2 Biology

Unit 1: Living Cells

Learning Objectives

  • To revise knowledge on cell variety and cell structure

  • Revise the function of nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole.

  • To revise anaerobic respiration / fermentation in yeast

  • Revise the use of fungi to make antibiotics

  • Revise yoghurt production

  • Revise biogas and gasohol production

Cell Structure and Function

  • Why is the cell described as the basic unit of life?

  • Name three structural features that a typical plant cell and a typical animal cell have in common.

  • Name three structural features present in an Elodea leaf cell but absent from a cheek epithelial cell.

  • Give the function of each of the following structures: cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus.

Commercial and Industrial Uses of Cells

  • Give the word equations for aerobic and anaerobic respiration in yeast.

  • Describe the role of carbon dioxide in bread making

  • Write a simple word equation to summarise the process of malting in barley grains about to be used in the brewing of beer.

  • Copy the following sentences choosing the correct answer from each choice in brackets:

    • During the production of yoghurt, (bacteria/yeast) respire (aerobically/anaerobically) and convert (maltose/lactose) to (lactic acid/alcohol). This chemical brings about the coagulation of milk (proteins/sugars) and acts as (an antibiotic/a preservative).

Commercial use of Micro-organisms

  • Microbes used commercially and in industry are:

    • Fungi

      • bread making, brewing, gasohol (alternative fuel) and antibiotics

    • Bacteria

      • yoghurt production and biogas (methane gas)


  • Alcohol and Gasohol are renewable fuels.

  • Alcohol is produced in fermentation

  • When yeast ferments sugar, alcohol is produced, but in small amounts.

  • The alcohol can be separated from the fermentation mixture by distillation. Alcohol is flammable and can be used as a fuel.

  • If Alcohol is mixed with petrol it produces gasohol

Gasohol Production


  • Some bacteria produce methane gas in conditions where oxygen concentrations are low.

  • This gas is rich in chemical energy and can be burned. This is biogas.

  • Biogas can be produced from organic waste and is a gas produced by decaying rubbish

Biogas Production

Commercial and Industrial uses of cells – YEAST SUMMARY

  • Bread making

    • anaerobic respiration in yeast produces carbon dioxide which makes the dough rise.

  • Alcohol production

    • fermentation (anaerobic respiration) in yeast produces alcohol. The sugar comes from malted barley or fruit.

  • Alternative fuels

    • When alcohol is mixed with petrol it is gasohol

Commercial and Industrial uses of cells – BACTERIA SUMMARY

  • Yogurt production

    • bacteria convert the sugar (lactose) in milk into lactic acid. The lactic acid causes the milk to thicken and curdle.

  • Alternative fuels

    • Bacteria ferment (anaerobic respiration waste products and produce methane gas.

    • This is called Biogas

5 Mark QuestionsLabelled diagrams may be included where appropriate.

  • Describe how cells are used in the production of yoghurt and alternative fuel. Include in your answer for both, the type of cell used, the substrates and the products.( Int 2 2005)

  • Describe the function of yeast in bread making and the anaerobic pathway of respiration involved in this process. (Int 2 2008)

Question – 5 marks

  • The diagram below shows a container used for home wine production.

  • Describe the anaerobic pathway of respiration which results in wine production in this container.

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