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Developing a New System Safety Standard for U.S. Army Aviation. Presented at the International Helicopter Safety Symposium 2005 Montr é al, Qu ébec , Canada September 28, 2005 David B. West, PE, CSP, CHMM SAIC 6725 Odyssey Drive Huntsville, AL 35806 (256) 313-2091 [email protected]

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Developing a New System Safety Standard for U.S. Army Aviation

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Developing a new system safety standard for u s army aviation l.jpg

Developing a New System Safety Standardfor U.S. Army Aviation

Presented at the

International Helicopter

Safety Symposium 2005

Montréal, Québec, Canada

September 28, 2005

David B. West, PE, CSP, CHMM

SAIC

6725 Odyssey Drive

Huntsville, AL 35806

(256) 313-2091

[email protected]


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Developing a New System Safety Standardfor U.S. Army Aviation

OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION

  • Introduction – the domain of U.S. Army Aviation

What it is, who’s involved, and what they do

  • Existing Standards and Regulations

From DoD Instruction 5000.2 on down

  • The Current Situation and Its Challenges

Similarities and differences among the various Army Aviation system safety programs

  • Opportunities to Benefit from Standardization

  • Recommendations


Introduction l.jpg

Introduction

U.S. Army Aviation

  • Over 5000 Aircraft – the largest fleet in the world

  • Helicopters, Fixed Wing Aircraft, UAVs

  • Majority of helicopters:

    • CH/MH-47 Chinook

    • UH/MH-60 Black Hawk

    • AH-64 Apache/Longbow

    • OH-58 Kiowa/Kiowa Warrior

  • Fixed wing aircraft – a variety, managed under a single Army PM

  • UAVs – increasing in importance; managed by a separate PM

  • Special Ops Aircraft; managed by TAPO


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Introduction (cont.)

Who’s Who of U.S. Army Aviation

  • Aircraft Manufacturer (OEM) or Prime Contractor

    • “Foundation” of each Army aviation program

    • Provides the aircraft and after-market services

  • PEO Aviation; owns and manages all Army aircraft

    • Program Managers (PMs) to manage each major program (e.g., Cargo Helicopters, Utility Helicopters, etc.)

      • In some cases, Product Manager reports to PM (e.g., Fixed Wing Product Manager reports to PM Aviation Systems)

  • RD&E Command / AMRDEC / Aviation Engineering Directorate (AED)

    • Matrix engineering support to programs


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Introduction (cont.)

Who’s Who of U.S. Army Aviation (cont.)

  • Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM)

    • Airworthiness (per AR 70-62); delegated to AED

    • “Gatekeeper” of System Safety Processes

      • Issues Safety of Flight (SOF) / Aviation Safety Action Messages (ASAM)

      • Coordinates and tracks all system safety risk assessments (SSRAs)

      • Reviews and coordinates on AWRs, ECPs, MWOs, RFD/RFWs, SARs, test plans, etc.

  • Developmental Test Command (DTC)

    • Operates Aviation Technical Test Center (ATTC)


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Introduction (cont.)

Who’s Who of U.S. Army Aviation (cont.)

  • Combat Readiness Center (CRC)

    • Formerly the U.S. Army Safety Center

    • Conducts accident investigations; maintains accident data

    • Director of Army Safety is also CRC Commander

  • Army Safety Action Team (ASAT)

    • Senior Army leadership; reviews Army-wide safety issues

  • Developmental Test Command (DTC)

    • Operates Aviation Technical Test Center (ATTC)


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Existing Standards and Regulations

  • DoD Instruction 5000.2

    • Single paragraph on ESOH in Enclosure 7 (HSI):

      “[PM must] prevent ESOH hazards where possible, and ... manage ESOH hazards where they cannot be avoided.”

    • Four risk levels and their acceptance authorities

  • MIL-STD-882

    • “Tailorable” – selected application of requirements

    • First published 1969; Rev. E to be published 2005

  • AR 70-1, Army Acquisition Policy

    • Specifies Army’s risk management process


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Existing Standards and Regulations (cont.)

  • AR 70-1 provides “risk decision authority matrix”


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Existing Standards and Regulations (cont.)

  • AR 385-16, System Safety Engineering and Management

    • Requires major Army programs to establish SSWGs

    • Standardizes the system safety risk assessment (SSRA) process


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Existing Standards and Regulations (cont.)

  • PEO Aviation Policy Memo 05-14


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Existing Standards and Regulations (cont.)

  • PEO Aviation Policy Memo 05-14 (cont.)

    • Outlines responsibilities of PMs, AED, SSWGs for all programs under PEO Aviation

    • Requires source-mechanism-outcome description of hazards

    • Requires use of common risk matrix:


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The Current Situation and Its Challenges

Similarities / Differences in Application of System Safety to Army Aviation Programs

  • Similarities – the good news:

    • Some due to deliberate attempts (e.g., PEO Policy Memo), such as common risk matrix, SSRAs, ASAM/SOF

    • Some safety issues common due to general nature of Army Aviation and helicopter design

      • Short duration, low altitude flight

      • Engine failure; autorotation

      • Similar flight control and rotor system mechanisms

      • Identical or similar weapon systems or auxiliary systems on different platforms


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The Current Situation and Its Challenges (cont.)

Similarities / Differences (cont.)

  • Differences in safety considerations:

    • Kiowa autorotation vs. Chinook or Black Hawk autorotation

    • Single engine vs. multi-engine

    • No. of crew/passengers: 0 (UAVs) to 2 (Kiowa, Apache) to 30+ (Chinook)

    • Helicopter hazards vs. fixed wing hazards

    • Common risk matrix, but different interpretations

    • Considerable variations in SSPPs, Hazard Tracking Systems

    • See Table 1 in paper


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Opportunities to Benefit from Standardization

Exemplary “State-of-the-Art”

Frequency of Practice

Minimum Acceptable

Consensus

CuttingEdge

Level of Detail and Accuracy

Source: APT Research, “Revising Draft MIL-STD-882E; Strawman Improvements and Rationale.” Presentation by Pat Clemens at the 110th meeting of the GEIA G-48 System Safety Committee. 2005.

Goals:

(A) Improve mean practice

(B) Decrease spread in practices

(B)

(A)


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Opportunities to Benefit from Standardization (cont.)

  • Make life easier for Army leadership (e.g., ASAT) that deal with all Army Aviation programs

  • Enhanced agility of work force

  • Shared resources – e.g., Hazard Tracking Systems

=

I-C Hazard

I-C Hazard


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Opportunities to Benefit from Standardization (cont.)

Hazard Frequency (Mishaps per 100,000 Hrs (11.4 years))

TBD

N

TBD

M

TBD

L

TBD

K

TBD

J

Super

Improbable

I

Incredibly

Improbable

H

Extremely

Improbable

G

Very

Improbable

F

Improbable

E

Remote

D

Occasional

C

Probable

B

Frequent

A

Severity

1

10

1E-11

1E-10

1E-9

1E-8

1E-7

1E-6

0.00001

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

13

End of Life on Planet Earth

Earth encounter with an asteroid

$2Q

1B Fatal

Cataclysmic2

$200T

100M Fatal

TBD11

$20T

10M Fatal

TBD10

High

$2T

1M Fatal

TBD 9

Serious

$200B

100K Fatal

Disastrous 8

Medium

$20B

10K Fatal

B-2

Catastrophic7

Low

F-22, C-17

$2B

1K Fatal

Catastrophic 6

$200M

100 Fatal

AH-64, CH-47, UH-60

Catastrophic 5

$20M

10 Fatal

C-12, OH-58D

Catastrophic4

$2M

1 Fatal

Small Unmanned Air Vehicles

Critical 3

$200K

Marginal 2

$20K

Negligible 1

$2K


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Opportunities to Benefit from Standardization (cont.)

  • Specific Areas of Opportunities:

    • Risk Summation

    • Risk Matrix Modernization

    • Definitions

    • Boilerplate SSMPs

    • Minimum Requirements for Hazard Tracking Systems

    • List of Generic Hazards

    • Lessons Learned

    • Online Access


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Recommendations

  • Develop and publish a new standard for application of System Safety to U.S. Army Aviation

  • All affected organizations should be involved

  • Incorporate specific opportunities cited herein


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