Choosing the appropriate student assistance program sap model in the k 12 environment
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Choosing the Appropriate Student Assistance Program (SAP) Model in the K-12 Environment. Cynthia Peck, BA, Four Wings Inc. Charity Cason, MS, WestEd. Overview of this Paper. Brief history on the development and evolution of SAPs in schools today

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Choosing the appropriate student assistance program sap model in the k 12 environment

Choosing the Appropriate Student Assistance Program (SAP) Model in the K-12 Environment

Cynthia Peck, BA, Four Wings Inc.

Charity Cason, MS, WestEd


Overview of this paper
Overview of this Paper Model in the

  • Brief history on the development and evolution of SAPs in schools today

  • What are the influences supporting the expansion of SAPs in schools

  • Provide a working definition for SAP

  • How that definition plays out in different implementation models

  • What variables influence SAP construction

  • How do these affect staffing, training & resources

  • Some promising findings and SAP resources


Evolution of saps
Evolution of SAPs Model in the

  • identification

  • objective documentation

  • confidential communications

  • referrals and advocacy for health and community services

  • ongoing support in the workplace

1980s- SAPs were modeled after EAP’s


1980 1990
1980-1990 Model in the

  • Adolescent treatment facilities train school personnel

  • Children of Alcoholics (COAs) Movement gained momentum

  • Book by Gary Anderson – When Chemicals Come to School (1987) typifies SAP

  • National Student Assistance Organization

  • Federal Anti-Drug Omnibus Act funds schools– Safe and Drug Free Schools & Communities



Saps develop structure for addressing non academic concerns
SAPs develop structure for addressing non-academic concerns someone else’s, were now served in integrated school counseling services with community referral networks

  • identification

  • referral

  • services

  • follow-up

  • (case management in many cases)



1990 2000 expanding beyond aod interventions

Behaviors of Concern address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Alcohol and Drug Use

Elementary

High School

1990-2000 Expanding beyond AOD interventions


Domains of influence
Domains of Influence address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Individual

School

Peer/Community

Family


Factors impacting school failure
Factors Impacting School Failure address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Interpersonal and relational experiences with peers and teachers (Marsh & Yeung, 1997; Wentzel & Caldewell, 1997)

  • Motivation (Kaplan, Peck & Kaplan, 1997)

  • Beliefs about importance of school (Hilty, 1998; House, 1999)

  • Early academic failure (Hawkins, et.al, 1997)

  • High levels of interpersonal conflict (Altenbaugh, 1998)


Factors impacting school failure1
Factors Impacting School Failure address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Lack of prosocial behavior in elementary school (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997)

  • Learning disabilities, behavior difficulties, attention deficit disorders, mental health problems (Deschenes et al., 2001)

  • Belief about their abilities (Marsh, 1987)

  • Self concept and self-esteem (Marsh & Parker, 1984)


Saps expand mental health services in schools
SAPs Expand Mental Health Services in Schools address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Higher utilization rate of school based mental health services than national figures for use of hospital and clinic services (Anglien, et.al. 1996)

  • Minority children perceived them more acceptable (Armbruster et.al. 1997)

  • SAP may be a more acceptable term than mental health clinic among parents and school boards


Special education assessments
Special Education Assessments address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Mandated by law, Multidisciplinary Teams (MDTs) must assess student’s referred for assessment within specific time frames, with appropriate documentation to determine what if any special education services should be provided.


Multidisciplinary teams for special education assessment
Multidisciplinary Teams for Special Education Assessment address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • A student’s problems in the classroom lead to a teacher’s initial referral to a “prereferral team”

  • The team tries to understand the student’s functioning and suggests interventions.

  • If the classroom interventions don’t work, the student is then referred for special education assessment.


Saps could address problems for mdts
SAPs Could Address address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.Problems for MDTs

  • With no other referral source to access teachers over utilize the MDTs.

  • The literature clearly documents referral bias of student’s who “bother” the teacher.Their concerns thus support their subjective perceptions (Gerber & Semmel, 1984).

  • Students are not recommended for special education assessment or placement until the conclusion of the pre-referral process and documentation of previously tried strategies


Definition of sap
Definition of SAP address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

“A process by which students who exhibit behaviors of concern are identified, referred for assessment and/or services, and followed up”.


Referral address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Service Intervention


Initiating Referral address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Assessment

Referral

Service Interventions


School policy
School Policy address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Influenced by state and federal mandates

  • IDEA

  • Public Law 94.142

  • State Education Code

  • Title IV Zero Tolerance


Categorical problem driven approach

Discipline Issues address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Special Education Issues

Dropout Prevention Issues

AOD Issues

Coordinator

Coordinator

Coordinator

Coordinator

Strategy

Strategy

Strategy

Strategy

Categorical Problem-Driven Approach


Student focused approach

Behavior or Issue of Concern address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Student Assistance Program

Discipline Educational Dropout Prevention AOD Prevention

Strategies Strategies Strategies Health Promotion Strategies

School Based Services Services Services Community Based

Follow-up SAP Meeting

Student-Focused Approach


Philosophical variables defining an sap
Philosophical Variables address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.Defining an SAP


Academic address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Social Emotional

Whole School

Targeted

Need

Driven

Resource

Driven

Voluntary

Mandated

Philosophy Often Dictates SAP Structure


Philosophy Often Dictates SAP Structure address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Minimal Parent/ Student Involvement

High Parent/ Student Involvement

Proactive

Reactive

Treatment

Prevention


Program operations
Program Operations address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

The philosophy of the SAP determines many of the program operations


Operational questions
Operational Questions address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • What will be the referral sources?

  • What will be the SAP team structure?

  • Who will be included in staff development activities?

  • What will be the tracking system for identification, referral, service provision and follow up?

  • Will there be community links to the SAP?

  • What will be the role of non and referred SAP students?


Resources available often dictate sap program operations
Resources Available Often Dictate SAP Program Operations address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Multiple Interventions

Single Intervention

Single Exposure

Multiple Exposure

School Based

Community Based


Community based resources
Community Based Resources address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Medical / Children’s Health Insurance

  • Legal / Vocational

  • Mental Health/ Substance Abuse Treatment

  • Family Resources

  • Temporary Emergency Assistance


School based resources
School Based Resources address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Academic Support

  • Assessments and Placements

  • Categorical Programs

  • Classroom Strategies


Increasing sap resources
Increasing SAP Resources address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Asset Surveys

  • Cross Trainings

  • Joining Community Partnerships

  • UCLA Center for Mental Health in Schools http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/temphome.htm

  • National Student Assistance Association http://www.NASAP.org

  • WestEd http://wested.org

  • SAMSHA – Decision Support System http://www.SAMHSA.gov


Sap as a process
SAP …..as a process………. address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Promote individual, family & school wide awareness of health and wellness promoting behaviors

  • To link students to effective interventions

    -Interventions should be science based

    -Implemented with fidelity

    -Linked to student achievement data


Common sap interventions
Common SAP interventions address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • Academic Interventions (tutoring, assessments, classroom strategies, other)

  • Life Skills

  • Individual and Group Counseling

  • Drug Education

  • Parent/Student/SAP Team Conferences

  • Conflict Resolution

  • Crisis Intervention


Selection of sap interventions

Data Driven Decisions address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Resource Driven Decisions

Selection of SAP Interventions


Sources of data
Sources of Data address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

  • student surveys (CHKS)

  • teacher surveys

  • parent surveys, focus groups

  • school data

  • community data


Promising findings on sap as process
Promising Findings on address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.SAP as process


Contact information
Contact Information address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Cynthia Peck

[email protected]

Charity Cason

[email protected]

801 North Parkcenter Drive Suite A7

Santa Ana, California 92705

714-972-5900


Presentation handouts
Presentation Handouts address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

Available on APHA conference website


Wested exhibitors booth

WestEd Exhibitors Booth address student mental health needs and behaviors of concern outside of disciplinary responses.

# 1055


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