Recall that the Zhou Dynasty lasted from 1027 B.C. to 256 B.C. For the first 300 years of their reign, the Zhou kings controlled a large empire. Local rulers represented the king, but he had the ultimate power. By the latter years of the Zhou Dynasty the lords began to think of themselves as indep
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1. Picture yourself as a ruler of a newly developed country. How would you choose to rule your subjects? Maybe you would be strict. Or maybe you would be easy going, with flexible rules.
What kinds of problems would you most likely run into with this kind of system of rule? Would your subjects support you? If you are too flexible, will your subjects be out of control? Warm Up #11
2. Recall that the Zhou Dynasty lasted from 1027 B.C. to 256 B.C.
For the first 300 years of their reign, the Zhou kings controlled a large empire. Local rulers represented the king, but he had the ultimate power.
By the latter years of the Zhou Dynasty the lords began to think of themselves as independent kings. Their bloody warfare led to the decline of the Zhou Dynasty Chinese Philosophies
3. Chinese Philosophies China’s ancient values of social order, harmony, and respect for authority were put aside toward the end of the Zhou dynasty. To restore these values, Chinese scholars and philosophers developed different solutions.
4. China’s most influential scholar was Confucius. He was born in 551 B.C. and lived during the time when the Zhou Dynasty was being torn apart by warring lords.
Confucius believed that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored in china if society was organized around 5 basic relationships:
Ruler and Subject
Father and Son
Husband and Wife
Older brother and younger brother
Friend and Friend
A code of proper conduct regulated each of these relationships. For example, rulers should practice kindness and virtuous living. In return, subjects should be loyal and law-abiding.
5. Confucius spent his life teaching. The only record of his ideas are the writings of his students, collected in a book the Analects
Confucius said that educations could transform a humbly born person into a gentlemen. In saying this he laid the groundwork for the creation of a bureaucracy.
Bureaucracy- a system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of government
Confucianism became the foundation for Chinese government and social order. Confucianism
6. Daoism For the Chinese philosopher Laozi, only the natural order was important.
His book, Dao De Ching (The Way of Virtue) expressed the belief that a universal force called the Dao, meaning “the Way” guides all things.
He taught that if one seeks order and harmony, they should observe nature.
7. According to Laozi, nothing in nature strives for fame, power, or wisdom. They follow the Dao.
Only humans fail to follow the Dao. They argue about questions of right and wrong. According to Laozi, such arguments are pointless.
Unlike Confucius and the Legalists, Laozi believed that government should do as little as possible and leave the people alone. Much like the idea of “laissez faire.”
Daoists made many contributions to the sciences of alchemy, astronomy, and medicine. Daoism
8. Legalists were a group of practical political thinkers that believed the nature of man was evil and a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to restoring order.
They got their name from the belief that government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony.
Among the founders of Legalism were Hanfeizi and Li Si.
The legalists taught that a ruler should provide rich rewards for people who carried out their duties and the disobedient should be harshly punished. Legalism
9. Examples of strict punishment: anyone caught outside his own village without a travel permit would have his ears or nose chopped off.
Daoism and Confucianism looked to the past as the ideal and tried to recreate the past. Confucius' rituals came from the Zhou Dynasty and the Dao is the original state of all things. Legalism disregards the past.
The Legalists believed in controlling ideas as well as actions. They suggested rulers burn all writings that might encourage people to think critically about government. Legalism
10. I Ching and Yin and Yang People with little interest in these philosophical debates consulted a book of oracles called I Ching (Yi Jing) to answer ethical or practical problems.
Ancient thinkers developed the concept of yin and yang, two powers that together represented the natural rhythms of life.
11. You are going to try to convince me which of the three philosophies we should use in our classroom: Confucianism, Daoism, or Legalism.
You will be paired up. You and your partner must agree.
You will create a poster with the following components:
A bold heading for your poster, Ex: CHOOSE DAOISM
A drawing depicting the philosophy you chose
The basic teachings of your philosophy
Why your philosophy would be best for our classroom
Why both other philosophies are bad choices Create an opinion poster…