twentieth century physical education and sport
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 77

web.ku - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 285 Views
  • Uploaded on

TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT MODERN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'web.ku' - adamdaniel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
modern physical education
MODERN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • 1893—Thomas Wood—"The great thought in physical education is not the education of the physical nature, but the relation of physical training to complete education, and then the effort to make the physical contribute its full share to the life of the individual, in environment, training, and culture."
luther gulick4
LUTHER GULICK
  • YMCA Training School (1887-1900)
  • Director of Physical Training for New York City Public Schools (1903-1908)
  • 1903—Public Schools Athletic League in New York
    • Class athletics—track and field; basketball; baseball
    • Athletic badge tests—dash; broad jump; pull-ups
    • Interschool athletics—Madison Square Garden
luther gulick5
LUTHER GULICK
  • Jesse Bancroft served as Assistant Director for physical training in New York
  • Elizabeth Burchenal directed the Girls\' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League, which featured folk dancing
  • 1906—Playground Association of America
  • 1913—Campfire Girls
  • Play was the most important educational aspect
thomas wood7
THOMAS WOOD
  • 1891-1901—Stanford—physical education and health undergraduate curricula established
  • 1901-1932—Teachers College—physical education and health undergraduate and graduate curricula (1927—moved into health education)
  • Emphasized educational goals through "natural activities"—sports, games, dances, aquatics, arts, and recreation.
  • 1927—The New Physical Education with Rosalind Cassady
clark hetherington9
CLARK HETHERINGTON
  • Stanford under Wood (1893-1896—student and instructor)
  • Clark University under G. Stanley Hall—child-study and developmentalism
  • 1900-1910—Missouri—rid athletics of abuses (supported women\'s activities)
  • 1923-1929—New York University—physical education curriculum
  • 1929-1938—Stanford
clark hetherington10
CLARK HETHERINGTON
  • Play was a child\'s chief business in life
  • Stressed attainment of educational goals in physical activities
  • 1910—Four phases of the educational process
    • Organic education
    • Psychomotor education
    • Character education
    • Intellectual education
jay nash12
JAY NASH
  • New York University (1926-1953)
  • Influenced by Hetherington
  • Recreation—part of total life experiences for all ages
  • Emphasis on carry-over sports
jesse williams14
JESSE WILLIAMS
  • Teachers College of Columbia University (1919-1941)
  • Expanded Wood\'s ideas of physical education as part of education, i.e., social education (John Dewey), unified whole, and living in a democratic society
  • "Education through the physical"
  • Physical development is a means to an end (educational objectives)
the new physical educators

Gulick

Wood

Hetherington

Nash

Williams

UG SCHOOL

Oberlin

Oberlin

Stanford

Oberlin

Oberlin

DEGREE

M.D.

M.D.

A.B.

Ph.D.

M. D.

UNIVERSITY AFFILIATIONS

YMCA Training School

Stanford; Teachers College

Clark; Missouri; Wisconsin; New York; Stanford

New York University

Teachers College

POSITIONS

Supervisor of YMCA Training School; Director of Physical Training in New York

Professor of Health and Physical Education

Professor of Physical Education; State Supervisor of Physical Education and Athletics

Professor of Physical Education

Professor of Physical Education

INFLUENCED BY

Hanna and Wood

Hanna, Dewey, and Williams

G. Stanley Hall and Nash

Hanna and Hetherington

Hanna, Dewey, and Wood

THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS
the new physical educators16

Gulick

Wood

Hetherington

Nash

Williams

CURRICULUM

All-around development

UG and GRAD programs

UG and GRAD programs; child studies

UG and GRAD programs

UG and GRAD programs

THEME

Play

Natural activities; complete education

Play

Recreation; play as a total life experience for adults and children

Education through the physical; social education

APPROACH TO ATHLETICS

For developing manly traits

Favored sports and games

Favored athletics for men, when controlled, and play days for women

Not as important as educational values

Used to attain educational values

RELATIONSHIP TO EDUCATION

All-around development

Favored complete education and social values

Philosopher

Apply education to life and recreation

Total interdependency of educational values

IMPACT ON THE PROFESSION

An innovative play leader

Teacher training

Leader in play

Recreation leader

Writings and his philosophy

THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS
charles mccloy18
CHARLES MCCLOY
  • YMCA—22 years of service at home and abroad
  • University of Iowa (1930-1954)
  • Organic unity—physical dimension—the major aspect of the whole being
  • “Education of the physical”
  • Educational objectives—secondary to the development of the physical
  • Measurement—to develop skill and strength
playground movement
PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT
  • Colonial amusements—Puritan work ethic
  • First playgrounds in urban settings
    • 1880s—Boston—sand boxes—later in schools
    • 1890s—New York (Central Park), Boston, and Chicago provided green space for the upper class; opened playgrounds for others
    • 1894—Chicago—Jane Addams\' Hull House—one of several settlement houses where play opportunities were provided for children
playground movement20
PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT
  • Commonalities of early playgrounds
    • Preadolescent children
    • Summer months initially
    • Outdoor equipment
    • In urban (populated) areas
    • Philanthropic support (donated land); later cities financed
    • Supervisors were mothers and police
slide21

PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT

  • South Park in Chicago—fields, gymnasium, and other activity spaces
  • Sport was used as a means of social control for the assimilation of immigrants\' cultures and the socialization of American youth
  • Began with playgrounds for children and transitioned into recreation for all
    • 1906—Playground Association of America
    • 1906—Boys\' Clubs of America
playgrounds to recreation
PLAYGROUNDS TO RECREATION
  • 1910—Boy Scouts of America
  • 1911—Playground and Recreation Association of America
  • 1912—Girl Scouts
  • 1913—Campfire Girls of America
  • 1930—National Recreation Association
  • 1965—National Recreation and Park Association
  • Clark Hetherington—The Normal Course in Play—to train recreation workers
recreation movement
RECREATION MOVEMENT
  • Depression—increased leisure time—softball and bowling
  • Industrial Recreation—1940s— facilities and equipment provided for leisure time usage by workers—softball, bowling, and basketball
  • 1950s—beginning of outdoor education movement—hiking, camping, and backpacking
fitness
FITNESS
  • 1965—Lifetime Sports Foundation—carry-over sports to play throughout life
    • Archery
    • Bowling
    • Badminton
    • Golf
    • Tennis
  • 1970s—Fitness boom—jogging; tennis; racquetball; aquatic sports
organized youth sports
ORGANIZED YOUTH SPORTS
  • 1920s—American Legion baseball
  • 1930—Pop Warner Football—Joe Tomlin
  • 1939—Little League Baseball—Carl Stoltz
  • 1950—Biddy Basketball—Joe Archer
  • 1950—AAU age-group swimming; later wrestling, skiing, and track and field
  • 1967—AAU Junior Olympics
physical fitness
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1953—Results of the Kraus-Weber Minimal Muscular Fitness Test: 58% of U.S. youth failed one or more items, while 9% of the European youth failed (tested flexibility)
    • On stomach—Raise legs (10 seconds each)
    • On stomach—Raise upper body
    • On back—Raise legs
    • Straight leg sit-up
    • Bent-knee sit-up
    • Touch toes
physical fitness27
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1956—President Eisenhower through an Executive Order established the President\'s Council on Youth Fitness as an outgrowth of the President\'s Conference on Physical Fitness
  • 1956—AAHPER Fitness Conference
  • June 1 -7, 1958—National Fitness Week
physical fitness28
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1957—AAHPER\'s National Research Council developed the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test
    • Pull-ups (boys)
    • Flexed-arm hang (girls)
    • Sit-ups
    • Shuttle run
    • Standing broad jump
    • 50-yard dash
    • 600-yard run-walk
    • Softball throw
physical fitness29
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1958—Operation Fitness sponsored by AAHPER to stimulate fitness nationally
  • 1958—Results of the AAHPER Fitness Youth Test showed poor performance by youth (8500 boys and girls tested in grades 5-12)
slide30

PHYSICAL FITNESS

  • 1961—President\'s Council on Youth Fitness published the "Blue Book" with suggestions for a school-centered program
    • Identify the physically underdeveloped student and work to improve
    • Provide at least 15 minutes of vigorous activity daily for all
    • Use valid fitness tests to determine abilities and evaluate progress
slide31

PHYSICAL FITNESS

  • 1963—President Kennedy changed name to the President\'s Council on Physical Fitness
  • 1965—Retesting of youth with AAHPER Youth Fitness Test showed improvement in students\' fitness levels
  • 1968—Aerobics (Kenneth Cooper)
    • male = 30 points per week
    • female = 24 points per week
  • 1974—Retesting of youth with AAHPER Youth Fitness Test showed no overall improvement in fitness levels since 1965
slide32

PHYSICAL FITNESS

  • 1981—AAHPERD Lifetime Health-Related Physical Fitness Test
    • Body composition using skin-fold measures
    • Function of heart and circulatory system using a 1.5 mile or 12-minute run
    • Strength using bent-knee sit-ups in 60 seconds (number done)
    • Flexibility using straight leg with arm extension
slide33

PHYSICAL FITNESS

  • 1994—Physical Best (AAHPERD\'s educational materials) combined with the FITNESSGRAM developed by the Cooper Institute
    • Aerobic capacity in a one-mile walk/run or pacer for young children
    • Body composition
    • Muscular strength and endurance using curl-ups, push-ups, or alternatively pull-ups, modified pull-ups, or flexed-arm hand and trunk lift
    • Flexibility using sit-and-reach
adapted physical education
ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Adapted physical education is for exceptional students who are so different in mental, physical, emotional, or behavioral characteristics that in the interest of quality of educational opportunity, special provisions must be made for their proper education.

slide35

CATEGORIES

  • Physical limitations
  • Deaf
  • Blind
  • Hard of hearing
  • Orthopedically impaired
  • Speech impaired
  • Visually handicapped
  • Injured
  • Low skilled
slide36

CATEGORIES

  • Mental limitations
    • Mentally challenged
    • Learning disabled
  • Behavioral limitations
    • Attention-deficit disorder
    • Emotionally disturbed
  • Interrelated (multiple handicaps)
historically
HISTORICALLY
  • Excused
  • Corrective or remedial
  • Individualized
  • Mainstreaming
  • Inclusion—integration of children with special needs with students in regular classes
  • Least restrictive environment
rehabilitation act of 1973 section 504 individuals with disabilities in education
REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973, SECTION 504—INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES IN EDUCATION

“No otherwise qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program which receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance.”

public law 94 142
The Education of all Handicapped Children Act of 1975

Required the development of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for every child with special needs, including specifically for physical education

PUBLIC LAW 94-142
slide40
IDEA

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has fostered significant changes in the lives of children with disabilities and their families and in the roles of schools and teachers in the education of children with disabilities. The basic tenets of IDEA have remained intact since the original passage of the law in 1975. However, each set of amendments has strengthened the original law.

slide41

INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM

  • Statement of the child’s current levels of educational performance
  • Statement of measurable annual goals, including short-term objectives or benchmarks
  • Statement of the specific special education and related services to be provided to the child
  • Statement of the extent (if any) to which the child will not participate with non-disabled children in regular class and other school activities
  • Statement of any individual modifications in the administration of statewide or district wide assessment of student achievement
slide42

INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM

  • Statement of when services will begin, how often they will be provided, where they will be provided, and how long they will last
  • Statement of transition services needs (beginning at age 14) and transition services needed to prepare for leaving school (beginning at age 16)
  • Statement of any rights that will transfer to the child at the age of majority (at least one year prior)
  • Statement of how the child’s progress will be measured and how parents will be informed of the progress
men s athletics
MEN\'S ATHLETICS
  • Socially elite—horse racing, dancing, gambling, cards, and yachting
  • Baseball (1744—England; not 1839 in America)
  • Cycling—late 1800s
  • Tennis—1874 from England
  • Golf—Scotland
  • Cricket and croquet clubs—late 1800s
  • 1891—Basketball—James Naismith at the YMCA Training School
  • 1896—Volleyball—William Morgan at YMCA
amateur sports 1850 1900s
AMATEUR SPORTS—1850-1900s
  • Athletic clubs (especially the New York Athletic Club)—provided sports opportunities for members (especially track and field)
  • 1879—Amateur Athletic Union (1888)—"check the evils of professionalism and promote amateur sport"
  • 1912—538 athletic clubs and the AAU had 19,000 members
  • Competition offered (and said to control) 40 sports; later 16 sports—especially basketball, track and field, and boxing
men s intercollegiate athletics
MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • Students promoted, financed, and controlled athletics—faculty and administrators did not want to be involved (no standard rules or eligibility regulations)
    • Rowing—1852—Harvard over Yale
    • Baseball—1859—Amherst over Williams
    • Football—1869 (actually rugby)—Rutgers over Princeton
men s intercollegiate athletics46
MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • Social function
  • Winning=fans=money=winning=fans=money
  • Recruiting
  • Professional coaches
  • Newspaper coverage
  • Graduate managers
  • Walter Camp controlled the collegiate football rules committee (1879-1925)
slide47

MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

  • Control established in colleges
    • Injuries; property damage; class absences; rule confusion; gambling; drunkenness; professionalism; commercialism; loss of values
    • Benefits—improved health; taught values such as fair play and teamwork; diminished use of tobacco and alcohol; reduced rowdyism; improved discipline; enhanced school spirit
slide48
Late 1800s—students unified various rules of sports
  • Harvard faculty attempted to control class absences and to regulate athletic abuses
    • 1882—Harvard model with three faculty
    • 1885—added two students and one alumnus;
    • 1888—three faculty; three students; three alumni
slide49

MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

  • 1895—Midwestern colleges (Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives—today’s Big Ten)
      • Required to be students
      • Six months residence for transfers
      • Must remain eligible academically
slide50
Representatives from 13 colleges attended the initial meeting in December, 1905, called by President MacCracken of New York University to investigate the future of football due to deaths and injuries, dishonesty, gambling, and eligibility; in January, 1906, a second meeting led to the establishment of the NCAA and the reform of football to prevent injuries and deaths; legalized the forward pass
  • 1906—National Collegiate Athletic Association was established by 28 colleges
aau and ncaa conflicts
AAU AND NCAA CONFLICTS
  • Olympic team selection (1920s to the 1970s)
    • National Amateur Athletic Federation—1922
  • Sanctioning of events
  • Certification of records
  • 1978—Amateur Sports Act
slide52

PROBLEMS IN MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

  • 1929—Savage study of college athletics found problems as reported in American College Athletics
    • Commercialism
    • Loss of educational values
slide53

SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

  • Faculty control—institutional or home rule
  • Conferences—save money; fewer classes missed; equal philosophy and size; rivalry
  • No seasonal coaches—in departments of physical education to gain faculty status
  • Rules of sports standardized and provide national tournaments (track and field—1921)
  • Recruitment and scholarship policies—Sanity Code (1948-1951)
slide54

ORGANIZATIONS IN MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

  • National Junior College Athletic Association—1938
  • National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics—1940 (only basketball until 1952)
slide55

INTRAMURALS

  • Activities among participants “within the walls” of an institution
  • Begun in 1913 at the University of Michigan under Elmer D. Mitchell
  • Initially organized and funded by athletics
  • Later, administered through departments of physical education
  • Today, comprehensive campus recreation opportunities are provided within student affairs
slide56

PURPOSES OF INTRAMURALS

  • Constructive use of leisure time
  • Opportunity to experience success
  • Physical fitness
  • Mental and emotional health
  • Social interaction and contacts
  • Esprit de corps
  • Promote permanent participant interest
  • Practice skills learned in physical education classes
  • Training ground for future varsity athletes
slide57

INTRAMURALS TO CAMPUS RECREATION

  • Traditional intramurals—competitions in traditional team and individual sports; usually a fairly narrow offering of activities; league competition is well structured and organized; requires a solid commitment from participants
  • Campus recreation includes non-athletic activities (games, crafts, dances, movies, etc.), special programs and workshops, open recreation, club sports, free play, faculty-staff programs, and co-recreation
slide58

CLUB SPORTS AND FUNDING

  • Club sports—groups of students, faculty, and staff who get together to share a mutual interest in a particular sport or activity; European concept that spread to this country, clubs are self-organized, administered, funded, coached, and otherwise maintained
  • Funding
    • State appropriations (within physical education)
    • Student fees
history of women s sports
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • Colonial period
    • Horseback riding; dancing; fox hunting
  • Next 100 years
    • Riding; walking; dancing; calisthenics
  • Late 1800s
    • Croquet; cycling; hiking (with clothing restrictions)
    • Tennis—1874
    • Gymnastics in bloomers
basketball
BASKETBALL
  • 1892—Smith College (Senda Berenson)
  • 1896—Stanford defeated California in the first intercollegiate game
  • 1899—Standardized rules
    • No snatching the ball
    • Could hold ball only three seconds
    • Could bounce ball only three times
    • Divided court into three areas to limit exertion
history of women s sports61
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • Basketball
    • 1936—two-division game
    • 1949—rover game in AAU; 1962 in colleges
    • 1970—full court game in colleges
  • Colleges—track and field; field hockey; archery; rowing; golf
history of women s sports62
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • Preferred events by physical education teachers
    • Field Day—interclass play within a school
    • Play Day—mixed teams competed with a social emphasis
    • Sports Day—within own team, competition with a social emphasis
    • Telegraphic Meet—send scores to a central location
history of women s sports63
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • Philosophical justifications for the opposition of women in competitive sports
    • Competition might be physically and emotionally harmful
    • Undesirable examples from men\'s programs
    • Philosophy of mass participation
    • Societal belief of women as homemakers, not athletes
slide64
Participation rather than competition in 1909—about half of the colleges had intercollegiate competition, especially in the West and Midwest
  • Allowed if these conditions met:
      • Women officials and coaches
      • Audience by invitation only
      • College-financed only
      • No "win-at-all costs” attitude—for fun and social interaction
  • Outside schools—Amateur Athletic Union sponsored leagues and tournaments
history of women s sports65
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • High schools followed the colleges—but problems arose:
    • Males coached
    • Used boys\' rules
    • Spectators allowed
    • Newspaper covered games
    • Competition was intense
    • All the above meant pressure to win
history of women s sports66
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • 1917—APEA Committee on Women\'s Athletics—set standards and rules of sports
  • 1917—Athletic Conference of American College Women
    • Opposed intercollegiate competition
    • Emphasis on participation by all
    • Aligned with physical education departments and teachers
history of women s sports67
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • 1923—Women\'s Division of the National Amateur Athletic Federation
    • Opposed international competition
    • Favored play days for girls and women
    • “A sport for every girl, and every girl in a sport"—National Section on Women\'s Athletics
history of women s sports68
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • 1941—National Tournament in golf—opposed by the National Section on Women’s Athletics
  • Industrial recreation and All-American Girls’ Professional Baseball League
history of women s sports69
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • Increased Competition
    • Olympic development thrust after defeat by Russians in 1956 and 1960 Olympic Games
    • U. S. Olympic Development Committee in 1961—"to broaden the base of participation for girls and women in Olympic sports and to provide better experiences for the skilled athlete"
    • 1963-1969—National Institutes on Girls\' Sports—to train teachers and coaches
history of women s sports70
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • 1966-1967—Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women—set up by the Division of Girls and Women in Sport
    • Encourage and govern intercollegiate competition for women at all levels
    • Sanction intercollegiate events
    • Hold national tournaments—first national tournaments in track and field and in gymnastics
history of women s sports71
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS
  • 1969—Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women
    • Members were colleges
    • Educational goals and purposes
  • Set standards and policies for women\'s athletics
    • NAGWS game rules
    • Separated from NAGWS in 1979
    • 39 championships in 17 sports
  • Ended June, 1982
title ix of the education amendments of 1972
TITLE IX OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS OF 1972

"No person shall on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, be treated differently from another person or otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, or no recipient shall provide athletics separately on such basis."

title ix timeline
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 1975—Federal government published guidelines for Title IX
  • 1976—Schools and 1978 (colleges) required to be in full compliance with Title IX
  • 1979—Congress adopted its policy interpretation of Title IX
  • 1984—United States Supreme Court ruled in Grove City College v. Bell that Title IX was applicable only to educational programs that directly received federal funding
title ix timeline74
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 1988—Congress passed (over presidential veto) the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which stated that Title IX applied on an institution-wide basis, including athletics
  • 1992—United States Supreme Court ruled in Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools that plaintiffs could sue for compensatory and punitive damages in cases alleging intentional discrimination
title ix timeline75
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 1993—NCAA released the report of its Gender Equity Task Force report that showed that women comprised 35% of the varsity athletes; received 30% of the athletic grant-in-aid dollars; were allocated 17% of the recruiting dollars; received 23% of the operating budget dollars; had access to 37% of the athletic opportunities for participation
slide76

TITLE IX TIMELINE

  • 1996—Females comprised 42% of the United States Olympic team competing in Atlanta; they won 38% of the medals awarded to athletes from the United States
  • 1997—United States Supreme Court refused to grant certiorari and hear the appeal of Cohen v. Brown University, thus affirming that schools and colleges must provide varsity athletic positions for males and females matching the overall percentage of the student body
title ix timeline77
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 2003—Upheld the use of proportionality in the three-part test for access to participation opportunities
  • 2005—Permitted the use of a web survey to determine if there was sufficient interest to support an additional varsity team for the underrepresented sex; creates a presumption of compliance with part three of the three-part test
ad