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UNIT 8 Ch. 24 – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH ASIA COUNTRIES OF INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, BHUTAN, NEPAL, SRI LANKA, and the MALDIVES I. Landforms and Resources A. Mountains and Plateaus 1. The Himalayas a. system of parallel mountain ranges in north part of region

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  • I. Landforms and Resources

    • A. Mountains and Plateaus

      • 1. The Himalayas

        • a. system of parallel mountain ranges in north part of region

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  • 2. Deccan Plateau

    • a. large tableland that covers much of southern India

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    • b. tilts east toward Bay of Bengal

    • c. separated from sea by Eastern and Western Ghats

    • d. very arid (dry) region because mountains keep moisture away

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    • D. Rivers, Deltas, and Plains

      • 1. Indus River

        • a. originates in the Himalayas

        • b. flows west then south through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea

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    • 2. Ganges River

      • a. originates in central Himalayas

      • b. flows eastward across northern India

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    • 3. Brahmaputra River

      • a. originates in the Himalayas

      • b. winds east then south through Bangladesh

      • c. meets with Ganges to form a huge riverdelta and empties into the Bay of Bengal

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    • C. Fertile Plains

      • 1. Alluvial Plain

        • a. Lands that are rich farmlands

        • b. created when rivers overflow their banks and deposit richsoil called alluvial soil

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    • 2. Indo-Gangetic Plain

      • a. three-fifths of India’s population lives here

      • b. many large cities such as New Delhi, Calcutta, and Dhaka located here

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    • D. Offshore Islands

      • 1. Sri Lanka

        • a. large, tear shaped island located in Indian Ocean off southern tip of India

        • b. lush, tropical island

        • c. mountains dominate center and beaches on the outsides

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    • 2. Maldives Archipelago

      • a. consists of 1,200small islands

      • b. stretch north to south for 500 miles near the equator

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    • c. located to the southwest off the coast of India

    • d. islands are low-lying tops of submerged volcanoes and called atolls

    • e. only about 200 of the islands are inhabited

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    • E. Natural Resources

      • 1. Water and soil

        • a. very important because of South Asia’s reliance on agriculture

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    • b. rivers are very important and even considered sacred

    • c. Rivers are important methods of transportation, irrigation, and hydro-electric power

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    • 2. Forests

      • a. Rainforests produce mass quantities of timber as well as many different types

      • b. deforestation is a huge problem and causes erosion, flooding, landslides, and loss of wildlife habitat

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    • 3. Minerals

      • a. India ranks fourth in the world in coal production

      • b. Many natural gas resources

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    • c. Uranium deposits in India provide fuel for nuclear energy

    • d. Other resources include iron-ore, manganese, gypsum, chromium, bauxite, and copper

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    • II. Climate and vegetation

      • A. Very diverse climate

        • 1. Tropical wet, tropical wet and dry, desert, semiarid, humid subtropical, and highland are all climate zones of South Asia

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    • 2. Some areas, such as the Thar Desert, get very little rain

    • 3. Cherrapunji, in northeast India, once received 366inches of rain – in one month

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    • B. Monsoons

      • 1. Most of the regions r greatly effected by these seasonal winds

      • 2. From June to September winds bring heavy rainfall to the region

      • 3. Highly unpredictable

      • 4. Sometimes beneficial, sometimes very destructive

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    • C. Cyclones

      • 1. Violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rains

      • 2. Most destructive in Bangladesh because of its low-lying areas

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    • 3. Can cause wide-spread damage and kill thousands

    • 4. In 1970, an estimated 500,000 people were killed and 1 million left homeless in Bangladesh

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    • D. Vegetation

      • 1. Very diverse vegetation

      • 2. Diversity a result of diverse climate

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    • III. Human-Environment Interaction

      • A. The Ganges River

        • 1. Drains an area in India that is home to 350million people

        • 2. Provides water for drinking, farming, and transportation

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    • 3. Known as the “Mother Ganges” to Hindus

    • 4. Hindus believe river is sacred and has healing powers

    • 5. Pilgrims come from around the world to drink and bathe in the Ganges

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    • 6. One of the most polluted rivers in the world

      • a. millions of gallons of raw sewage and industrial waste dumped in everyday

      • b. bodies of dead animals and humancorpses float down river

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    • c. water poisoned with deadly bacteria

    • d. people who bathe and drink in the Ganges get intestinal diseases and deadly diseases such as hepatitis

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    • 7. Hindu people do not believe the river is polluted

    • 8. Hindu people believe that if the river has a problem “Mother Ganges” will fixit

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    UNIT 8

    CHAPTER 25


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    • I. India

      • A. Early History

        • 1. Civilization began in Indus River Valley around 2500 B.C.

        • 2. Many different groups came to India and established many different customs and traditions

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    • 3. The Muslims established the MughalEmpire by the 1500’s in India

    • 4. Conflict arose between the Muslims and nativeHindus that still lasts today

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    • B. Europeans arrive

      • 1. European traders came to India in the 1500’s

        • a. came for spices, cloth, and other goods not available in Europe

        • b. French, Dutch, Portuguese, and British all were involved early on; British finally wonout

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    • 2. British EastIndia company

      • a. Gained control over all trade with Europe in India in 1757

      • b. In 1857, the British made India its colony and took over control of the government, which lasted for 90 years

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    • 3. India gained independence through the leadership of Mohandas Ghandi

      • a. He urged nonviolent resistance

      • b. On August 14, 1947, Britain granted India independence

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    • 4. Muslims chose to break away from India to form Pakistan and Bangladesh

      • a. Muslims saw that India was primarily Hindu

      • b. This division caused much violence that still lasts today

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    • C. Government

      • 1. India is world’s largestdemocracy

      • 2. Reflects elements of both the American and British systems

      • 3. Many different ethnic, cultural, and religious factors influence politics in India

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    • D. Economy

      • 1. Majority of people rely on agriculture

      • 2. Over half of people live in poverty

      • 3. Technological innovation has helped farmers, though some can not afford it

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    • 4. Industry is becoming big business in India

    • 5. Bangalore has become India’s high-tech center

      • a. Home to hundreds of computer software companies

      • b. They take advantage of India’s low wages and highly skilled workers

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    • E. Dailylife in India

      • 1. Family is center of life

        • a. Most marriages are arranged

        • b. marriages are maledominated

        • c. Divorce is rare

        • d. Relatives from several generations live under one roof

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    • 2. Diet

      • a. Largely vegetation

      • b. meat consumption is limited by religious beliefs

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    • 3. Recreation

      • a. soccer, field hockey, cricket

      • b. classic and modern pop music is popular

      • c. Movies are popular

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    • 4. Education

      • a. Most still work on farms or small craft industries

      • b. Most middle-class children attend school in cities

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    • c. In slums and rural areas, children do not regularly attend school and literacy rates are low

    • d. Only $6 dollars a year is spent by the government on each student; the American government spends over $6,300 per student

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    • F. Culture

      • 1. Hinduism

        • a. Dominate force in lives of most Indians

        • b. 80% of Indians are Hindus

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    • c. Polytheistic, or belief in many gods

    • d. Believe in reincarnation, or the rebirth of souls after death

    • e. Moral consequences of a person’s actions determine how a person is reincarnated

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    • 2. Caste System (social classes)

      • a. Part of Hinduism

      • b. Five castes

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    • (1) Brahmans (priests and scholars)

    • (2) Kshatriyas ( rulers and warriors)

    • (3) Vaisyas (farmers and merchants)

    • (4) Sudras (artisans and laborers)

    • (5) Dalits (untouchables) officially eliminated from constitution

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    • c. Belief is each person is born into caste

    • d. Belief is a person can move into different caste only through reincarnation

    • e. Causes discrimination and limits people’s ability to improve their lives

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    • II. Pakistan and Bangladesh

      • A. Primarily Muslim

      • B. Created in 1947 after British gave up rule of India

      • C. Much bloodshed between Hindus and Muslims was a result of this

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    • D. West Pakistan and East Pakistan shared Islamic beliefs but had differences

      • 1. This led to civil war

      • 2. East Pakistan won its independence in 1971 and changed its name to Bangladesh

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    • E. These countries have fought many wars and had much corruption

    • F. Struggle over Kashmir between India and Pakistan has come near to nuclear war

    • G. Agricultural economies are struggling and most of the populations live in poverty

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    • III. Nepal and Bhutan

      • A. Both countries are located in the Himalayas

      • B. Small populations because of location

      • C. Mt. Everest, the worlds tallest peak, is located here

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    • D. Both countries face strong political and economic problems

    • E. Economies are primarily agricultural and poor

    • F. Tourism is helping the economies some

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    • IV. Sri Lanka and Maldives

      • A. Sri Lanka is primarily Hindu and Buddhist

      • B. Maldives official religion is Islam, no others are allowed

      • C. Both beautiful, tropical places

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    • D. Economy of Sri Lanka is primarily agriculture

    • E. Economy of Maldives is based on fishing and tourism

    • F. Both face economic challenges because of war