Advertisement
1 / 31

U.S. Nuclear Testing and Radioactive Fallout in the Marshall Islands PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 63 Views
  • Uploaded on 04-06-2013
  • Presentation posted in: General

U.S. Nuclear Testing and Radioactive Fallout in the Marshall Islands. Elaine Cox MS-4 Tinsley Harrison Society November 17, 2005. Outline. Effects of ionizing radiation on humans 1954 Castle BRAVO and fallout effects U.S. presence in the Marshall Islands since 1958 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Download Presentation

U.S. Nuclear Testing and Radioactive Fallout in the Marshall Islands

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


U s nuclear testing and radioactive fallout in the marshall islands

U.S. Nuclear Testing and Radioactive Fallout in the Marshall Islands

Elaine Cox MS-4

Tinsley Harrison Society

November 17, 2005


Outline

Outline

  • Effects of ionizing radiation on humans

  • 1954 Castle BRAVO and fallout effects

  • U.S. presence in the Marshall Islands since 1958

  • Displacement of Marshall Islanders


Types of radiation

Types of Radiation


Examples radiation exposures

Examples Radiation Exposures

  • Rad - “radiation absorbed dose”

    • 100 rad = 1 Gray (Gy)

  • Chest x-ray - 0.06 - 0.11 mGy

  • Barium enema - 7.0 mGy

  • Lowest dose with observable effect

    • 0.1-0.5 Gy

  • Lethal dose

    • LD50 1.4 – 4.5 Gy

    • Certain death >10Gy


Acute radiation syndrome

Acute Radiation Syndrome


Factors determining lethality

Factors Determining Lethality

  • Dose Rate

  • Distance from source

  • Shielding

  • Available medical therapy


Delayed radiation injury

Delayed Radiation Injury

  • Cancers - thyroid, skin, breast, lung, GI

  • Leukemias

  • Growth retardation in children

  • Infertility

  • Birth defects

  • Cataracts


Delayed radiation injury1

Delayed Radiation Injury

  • Blood vessels

    • Fibrosis of vessel walls, end organ damage

  • Skin

    • Radiation dermatitis: desquamation, impaired wound healing, infection, ulceration, fibrosis

  • Heart

    • Pericardial fibrosis, myocardial ischemia


Delayed radiation injury2

Delayed Radiation Injury

  • Lungs

    • Acute lung injury, radiation pneumonitis, interstitial fibrosis

  • GI tract

    • Esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, colitis, mucosal ulceration, atrophy, and fibrosis

  • Kidneys

    • Fibrosis, hyalinization of glomeruli, urinary bladder fibrosis and ulceration


Outline1

Outline

  • Effects of ionizing radiation on humans

  • 1954 Castle BRAVO and fallout effects

  • U.S. presence in the Marshall Islands since 1958

  • Displacement of Marshall Islanders


Marshall islands

Marshall Islands

  • 29 atolls, 5 islands

  • 750,000 square miles of ocean

  • 70 square miles land area


Marshall islands1

Marshall Islands

  • 500 – 2000 BC: Micronesian settlers

  • 1600’s: Spanish, Dutch, English, Germans

  • Early 1900’s – WWII: Japanese control

  • After WWII – UN Strategic Trust Territory, state administered by US


Marshall islands2

Marshall Islands

  • 1946 – 1958

    • 67 Nuclear detonations in the Marshall Islands

  • 1950’s – Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)

  • 1958

    • US, Great Britain, USSR agreed to suspend nuclear weapons testing


1954 operation castle bravo

1954: Operation Castle Bravo

  • 0645h, March 1st, 1954

  • 15,000 kilotons

  • Three times more powerful than planned

  • Natives not evacuated beforehand

    • Previous fallout clouds had traveled away from inhabited islands

    • Reduction in military budget

    • Inadequate numbers of ships and aircrafts


Crossroads baker 1946

Crossroads BAKER 1946


Bravo on rongelap

BRAVO on Rongelap

  • “Like the sun rising in the west” followed by blast wave

  • “Snow-like” material fell for several hours- CaO

  • Water in cisterns turned yellow


Us nuclear tests

US Nuclear Tests

  • H+6hrs

    • Visible fallout on Rongelap atoll

  • H+24hrs

    • 2/3rd’s inhabitants experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, itching and burning skin

  • H+2wks

    • Many with cutaneous lesions, hair loss


Initial medical care

Initial Medical Care

  • Evacuations 48-78 hours later

  • Medical team arrives 8 days after detonation

    • Extensive exams and lab studies performed daily

  • Project 4.1 authorized

    • Exposed vs. Control groups, long term study

    • Classified as Secret Restricted Data


Doses to the exposed marshallese

Doses to the Exposed Marshallese


Dose estimates gy to the thyroid

Dose Estimates (Gy) to the Thyroid


Thyroid abnormalities

Thyroid Abnormalities

  • Neoplasms with >2.5 Gy exposure, on ave 10yr after exposure

  • Hypothyroidism with >54 Gy exposure

  • Cretinism – 2 infants

  • Growth retardation

  • Diverse abnormalities

  • One-third of exposed Rongelap

  • Largest incidence in children <10yo

  • 1966- all exposed place on thyroxine


Other delayed effects

Other Delayed Effects

  • Hematologic manifestations

    • Neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia

  • Chromosomal aberrations

  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia

    • One case, 19 yo boy, exposed at 1 yo

  • Growth retardation

    • Most cases found to be related to hypothyroidism


Outline2

Outline

  • Effects of ionizing radiation on humans

  • 1954 Castle BRAVO and fallout effects

  • U.S. presence in the Marshall Islands since 1958

  • Displacement of Marshall Islanders


Problems with us health care assistance

Problems with US Health Care Assistance

  • Multiple military and government institutions involved

  • Failure to assign responsibility, financial support, and authority

  • Poor communication

    • Language and cultural barriers

    • Political tension, mistrust, fear of further illness


D o e marshall islands medical program

D.O.E. Marshall Islands Medical Program

  • Began in 1954

  • 253 exposed and 91 non-exposed individuals

  • Annual health evaluation and cancer screening

  • Year round care since 1998

  • Finances referrals to Hawaii


D o e environmental monitoring

D.O.E. Environmental Monitoring

  • Began in 1972

  • Samples plants, foods, marine animals, soil, and water on 10 atolls

  • Whole body radiation counter and research center

  • Prevention of radioactive uptake by plants


Outline3

Outline

  • Effects of ionizing radiation on humans

  • 1954 Castle BRAVO and fallout effects

  • U.S. presence in the Marshall Islands since 1958

  • Displacement of Marshall Islanders


Nuclear nomads

“Nuclear Nomads”

  • Bikini Islanders agreed to temporarily leave atoll in 1946

  • Still have not returned

    • Kili Island

  • Displacement resulted in major change in lifestyle and diet

    • Diabetes

    • Psychological trauma

    • Dependence on US


Nuclear nomads1

“Nuclear Nomads”

  • Rongelap people returned in 1957

  • Evacuated Rongelap again in 1985

    • Because of fears of continued health effects from radiation

    • Facilitated by Greenpeace


Summary

Summary

  • Marshallese experienced many short and long term health effects from nuclear fallout.

  • Geographic displacement has contributed to public health problems.

  • Cultural barriers, poor communication, and excessive bureaucracy has complicated U.S. attempts to repair damage.


Resources

Resources

  • Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease