Formal Properties of Language: Form of the Message . The components of language:. the sounds of language the structure of language and the meanings of language. Talk is achieved through the interdependent components of sounds, words, sentences, and meanings.
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Talk is achieved through the interdependent components of sounds, words, sentences, and meanings.
The comparative analysis of sounds to differentiate meaning.
Description of the raw sounds of language
Phone= raw sound
The Vocal Apparatus
“You should have heard them ?eering at the end of the game.”
Where the sound is formed (articulated) in the mouth
(Bi-)Labial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips. English lacks bilabial fricatives, but these are found in Japanese (\'Fuji\'), and in Spanish (\'deber\').
Labiodental consonants are produced by raising the lower lip to the upper teeth. English has only fricative labiodentals, and no stops.
In English, the interdental consonants are also all fricatives. th
English alveolar consonants are formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the alveolar ridge, lies right behind the teeth. There are both fricatives and stops.
Very few palatals in English, just two affricates and the glide [j].
Spanish has a palatal nasal, as found in the word for \'year\', \'ano\'..
English has few velar consonants. No fricatives, for example. But these are sometimes pronounced in words borrowed into English from languages which do have velar fricatives, e.g. from German, \'Bach\'.
No uvular consonants in English but they are found in many languages. E.g. both French and some varieties of German have a uvular \'r\' sound. Uvular stops are also common in many languages.
There are three key questions to consider when describing vowel articulation.
How close is the tongue to the roof of the mouth?
Where is the narrowest constriction in the oral cavity?
What is the position of the lips?
Phonetic vowel sounds
French also has a "t" sound that is similar to the English phone, but is actually produced by placing the tongue on the teeth rather than the hard palate.
"bête" (French: stupid)
The French dental "t" derives from a wider practice preferring the teeth to the alveolar ridge as a point of articulation.
"belle" (French: beautiful)
In English the difference between "d" and "th" is phonemic as evident in the minimal pairs "den" vs. "then."
In Canadian English, the phoneme /t/ has five different pronunciations.
In English and many other languages, the liquids /l/ and /r/ are two separate phonemes (minimal pair \'life\', \'rife\')
"Do the dance organizers need people such that those people decorate the dance location?" - Do they need people to DECORATE?
"Do the dance organizers need people such that the organizers decorate those people?". - Do they need PEOPLE to decorate?
stress or accent refers to the degree of emphasis placed on the syllables of words in multisyllabic words; stress is not evenly distributed on all the syllables
"record" (stressed-unstressed) and "record" (unstressed-stressed).
Statement: “This is living!"
Question: "This is living?"
In the most familiar tonal language, Chinese, most syllables carry their own tone
Meaning primarily determined by tone
the rules governing the use of a language
Rules about how words are to be arranged to make a meaningful sentence
Rules about how words are to be constructed to create meaning
“someone did not find a completely suitable resting place”
Cat-s the animal and the plural
Morphemes can be added to words in cycles producing longer and more complex sequences
Nominative: used when the noun is the subject of the sentence or phrase
Vocative: used when the noun is used in a direct address
Accusative: used when the noun is the direct object of the sentence/phrase,
Genitive: used when the noun is the possessor of an object
Dative: used when the noun is the indirect object of the sentence
Ablative: used when the noun demonstrates separation or movement from a source, cause, agent, or instrument
English : household
“Flying planes can be dangerous.”
Words have referential meaning – i.e. They label things- persons, objects, events
What is a cow?
COW: count, potent, animate, feminine, nonhuman
some gestures, body postures and facial movements may have universal significance, and some may be of primate origin
Some gestures can express a specific meaning, often substituting for spoken words.
What is he saying?
Synthetic or polysynthetic languages
Deep Structure and Surface Structure
Place of articulation
Manner of Articulation