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Phylum Arthropoda. Similarities between Annelids and Arthropods Arthropods are metameric and their segments have appendages Nervous system with ventral nerve cords. Phylum Onychophora Annelid-like

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slide2

Similarities between Annelids and Arthropods

  • Arthropods are metameric and their segments have appendages
  • Nervous system with ventral nerve cords
  • Phylum Onychophora
  • Annelid-like
  • Segmented; unjointed appendages; similarity in structure of the body wall; segmentally arranged nephridia; pigment-cup ocelli
  • Arthropod-like
  • Reduced coelom, open circulatory system, tracheal system; soft cuticle composed of chitin

Peripatus, a small, nocturnal form found among the leaf-litter of tropical forests of South America.

slide3

The fossil record indicates that onychophorans have not changed much in 500 million years.

The Onychophoran Aysheaia from the Cambrian.

A lobe-limbed, segmented animal. Also note the spines on the legs. The head end has a pair of tapering limbs with spines, and three small projections near the mouth. Traces of the digestive tract can also be seen.

slide4

Phylum Tardigradaor “water bears” also have features in common with both annelids and arthropods

  • Annelid-like
  • Unjointed (8) legs; annelid-type nervous system
  • Arthropod-like
  • Presence of a cuticle (nonchitinous) that is periodically molted; similar attachment of muscle fibers to exoskeleton
  • One of the most interesting features of tardigrads is their ability to undergo cryptobiosis
slide5

Arthropod Taxonomy: Overview

The arthropods evolved along four main lines, which most zoologists recognize as 4 distinct subphyla

1. Trilobita - extinct trilobites

2. Chelicerata - horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, mites, and some extinct groups

3. Crustacea - crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles

4. Uniramia - insects, centipedes, millipedes

slide6

The Arthropod Exoskeleton

  • Epidermis secretes an external skeleton called the exoskeleton
  • Advantages of possessing an exoskeleton:
    • provides strong support
    • provides rigid levers that muscles can attach to and pull against
    • offers protection
    • serves as a barrier to prevent internal tissues from drying out; important because many arthropods live on land
    • serves as a barrier to prevent infection
slide7

Structure of the Exoskeleton

  • Composed of the polysaccharide chitin and protein - glycoprotein
  • Outer surface called the epicuticle;contains waxes
  • The thicker portion is called the procuticle:
    • exocuticle
    • endocuticle
  • In the exocuticle, the glycoprotein chains are cross linked; process is called tanning

epicuticle

exocuticle

procuticle

endocuticle

epidermis

slide8

Molting

  • In order to grow the arthropod must shed its exoskeleton, and secrete a new and larger one - moltingor ecdysis.
slide9

Jointed Appendages

  • Exoskeleton divided into a number of plates and cylinders
  • At the junction point between plates and cylinders, the exoskeleton remains thin and flexible; these are the joints
  • Jointed appendages allows arthropods to move efficiently and quickly
  • Muscles are integral to arthropod movement; they attach to the inner side of the exoskeleton; they often function as a lever system

Arthropod joint

Vertebrate joint

slide10

Specialized Arthropod Segments: Reduction in Metamerism

  • The evolution of the arthropods witnessed a reduction in metamerism
  • The arthropods evolved modified groups of segments (e.g., segments became lost, some fused together
  • The fusion of groups of segments into functional groups is called tagmatization
  • In so doing, various appendages on segments became specialized for functions other than locomotion, e.g. prey capture, filter feeding, sensing various kinds of stimuli, gas exchange, copulation, etc.
slide11

Arthropod Respiratory Advances

  • Special respiratory structures allow the arthropods to metabolize more efficiently and thus move rapidly
  • High metabolic rates require rapid oxygen delivery, and arthropods can accomplish this with respiratory organs that have a large surface area for collecting oxygen quickly
slide12

Gills

  • Many aquatic arthropods (crabs and lobsters) have gills, which are typically modifications of appendages or outgrowths of the body wall - folds of tissue with a large surface area
slide13

Tracheae

  • Gas exchange organs among terrestrial arthropods is usually internal; invaginations of the integument
  • Insects have tracheae,branching networks of hollow air conducting tubes such that air is sent to every cell in every tissue
slide14

Book Lungs

  • Spiders have book lungs,chambers with leaf-like plates for exchanging gases; air flows over the plates and blood flows through them
slide15

Acute Senses

  • Arthropods have a well-developed nervous system that is of the same overall design as the annelids; anterior brain and a double, ventral hollow nerve cord.
  • The sensory receptors of arthropods are usually associated with modifications of the chitinous exoskeleton
  • The head usually bears various kinds of sense organs (e.g. antennae) with extreme sensitivity
slide16

Acute Senses cont.

  • Many arthropods have compound eyes - eyes that are composed of many visual units called facets (ommatidia); capable of color vision and detecting the slightest movements of prey or predators
  • Some eyes are simple eyes with only a few photoreceptors; however, they are capable of forming crude images
slide17

Digestive System

  • Divided into 3 main regions: foregut, midgut, and hindgut
  • Foregut and the hindgut are lined with chitin
  • Foregut is involved with ingestion, mechanical breakdown, and storage
  • Hindgut is involved with water absorption and formation of the feces
  • Midgut is not lined with chitin; involved with digestion and absorption
  • Outpockets (e.g. digestive glands) increase the surface area for digestion and absorption
slide18

Internal Transport and Excretion

  • Open circulatory system
  • Many crustaceans possess an excretory organ called the green gland (antennal gland),which filters fluid from the blood
  • Most insects and spiders have a excretory system called malpighian tubules
slide19

Reproduction

  • Sexes are separate; fertilization is external in aquatic forms, internal among the terrestrial forms
subphylum trilobita
Subphylum Trilobita
  • A group of extinct marine arthropods.
  • Ranged in size from a few millimeters up to 75 centimeters.
  • Body divided into three parts:
    • cephalon (head), a single plate made up of several fused segments
    • thorax, consists of a number of segments hinged together
    • pygidium (tail), also segmented, but like the head, fused together into a single plate.
  • Compound eye, composed of radially arranged visual units
slide22

Subphylum Chelicerata

  • Lack antennae
  • Body is usually composed of two regions: cephalothoraxand abdomen
  • Cephalothorax is usually covered dorsally by the carapace
  • Six pairs of appendages: first pair are modified feeding structures - chelicerae
  • Second pair are called pedipalps
  • Four additional pairs of appendages are walking legs
  • No abdominal appendages
  • Some have compound eyes, usually have simple eyes capable of forming crude images.
slide23

Class Meristomata (e.g., Horeshoe crabs)

  • Marine chelicerates, common off of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts
  • Large dorsal carapace bearing compound eyes
  • Possess chelicerae, pedipalps, and 4 pair of walking legs (all but the last pair are chelate
  • Abdomen terminates in a long tail called the telson; used to turn the animal right side up
  • Possess a series of gill plates called book gills
slide24

Class Arachnida

  • Among spiders, the cephalothorax and abdomen shows no external segmentation; tagma are joined by a narrow pedicel
  • Respiration is accomplished via book lungs, tracheae, or both
  • Usually have 8 simple eyes; at the very least they detect motion; for some of the predatory forms, they are capable of forming crude images
  • Many species have evolved poison glands associated with the chelicerae

Black widow

Brown recluse

slide25

Class Arachnida cont.

  • Many of the spiders and mites are capable of producing silk; produced by silk glands that open to the exterior part of the abdomen through spinnerets
  • Silk is used to build webs for trapping prey, nests which serve as retreats, and egg cases; it is also used to form a dragline
  • Most spiders are predaceous and have all kinds of sensory hairs and relatively well-developed eyes for motion detection

Orb web construction

slide26

Prey capture among the spiders

  • Some species are cursorial predators,those that stalk and ambush their prey; they usually have well-developed eyes

Jumping spider

  • Others are web building spiders,those that construct various kinds of webs made of silk to trap their prey
  • Eyes are not as well developed as cursorial predators, but they have a battery of sensory hairs for detecting vibrations

Grass spider

slide27

SubPhylum Crustacea

  • Possess 2 pair of antennae: First pair is homologous to those of insects; second pair is unique to the crustaceans
  • Second antennae have various functions, including sensory, locomotion or feeding.
  • The head bears a pair of compound eyes and 3 pairs of mouthparts: a pair of mandibles, and 2 pairs ofmaxillae; used for food handling
  • Trunk varies considerably among classes
  • Primitively, the first three pairs of thoracic segments are maxillipeds;function in handling food
  • Also, there are usually 5 pairs of appendages strengthened for walking (walking legs) and protection (chelipeds,pincer-like claws)
slide28

SubPhylum Crustacea cont.

  • Abdomen is also highly variable, but it is primitively large
  • Groups with a well-developed abdomen usually possess six pairs of appendages: Five pairs of structures called swimmerets (=pleopods);one pair of structures called uropods,
  • Uropods together with the terminal telson form a tail fan than can serve as rudders during locomotion
slide29

SubPhylum Crustacea cont.

  • Primitively many of the appendages of the crustaceans are biramous: there is an outer exopodand an inner endopod
  • They usually have an extremely hardened exoskeleton, which is impregnated with calcium carbonate - carapace
slide30

SubPhylum Crustacea cont.

  • The primitive larva of the crustaceans is called the nauplius larva
  • It has an unsegmented body, a frontal eye, and 3 pairs of appendages, representing the 2 pairs of antennae and the mandibles
crustacean diversity
Crustacean Diversity

Ostracod

Water flea

Copepod

Fairy shrimp

Fish louse

slide33

SubPhylum Uniramia

  • Single pair of antennae
  • First pair of feeding appendages are mandibles
  • There are one or 2 pairs of maxillae
  • Number of legs vary from 3 pair to many pairs; they are unbranched or uniramous
slide34

SubPhylum Uniramia cont.

  • Class Chilopoda (Centipedes)
  • Serial segmented, flattened body and each segment has a pair of jointed appendages
  • Active predators, killing their prey with poison claws,which are modified legs on first segment
slide35

SubPhylum Uniramia cont.

  • Class Diplopoda (Millipedes)
  • Serially segmented, rounded body with 2 smaller pairs of legs per segment
  • Slow moving; feed on decaying plants
slide36

Class Insecta

  • Body is divided into 3 parts: the head, thorax and the abdomen.
  • Head has one pair of antennae, a pair of compound eyes and several sets of simple eyes
  • Mouthparts: a pair of mandibles, and two pairs of maxillae
  • One pair of maxillae are fused together to form a lower lip - labium
  • An upper lip - labrum - formed from an extension of the head
slide37

Class Insecta cont.

  • Mouthparts are highly modified depending on the group you are discussing
  • Mosquitoes have pointed mouthparts for piercing and sucking; grasshoppers have mouthparts that are well adapted for chewing; butterflies for siphoning; flies for sponging
slide38

Class Insecta con’t

  • Thorax is composed of 3 segments and each one has a pair of legs; the last two segments also have a pair of wings.
  • Wings of insects are modified portions of the exoskeleton
  • 1st pair is usually tough and leathery and fold over the inner pair for protection.
  • Abdomen does not have appendages; terminal portions do harbor the reproductive structures
slide39

Most insects undergo metamorphosis

  • Incomplete Metamorphosis (Hemimetabolous)
  • Early developmental stages are very similar to the adults; only the wings and the reproductive structures gradually develop
  • The immature stages are called nymphs
  • Thus development is egg----> nymphs ----> adult
slide40

Complete Metamorphosis (Holometabolous)

  • Each of the developmental stages is structurally and functionally very different
  • The egg develops into an immature larva; eats voraciously
  • Followed by a transitional stage - pupa,contained within cocoon
  • Metamorphosis occurs within the pupal exoskeleton, yielding a sexually mature adult
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