microorganism

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microorganism

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1. ? ?? ??? (microorganism)

6. <???? ??>

8. ??????

9. ??????

10. ? procaryte (????)? eucaryote (????) ? ??? ?. ?? ?? ? ??

12. 2???(fission)?? ???? ????? ??? ?? DNA? plasma ?? ???? ??.

14. ? ? ? (Bacteria) procaryote ? ? blue-green algae ? ??? ???? ?? 1 µm??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??.

29. ?????? ?Bacillus ? : Gm+,??? ~ ?? ???? ?? ~ ??? ??? ??, catalase+ ex) Bacillus natto : ???, ????, 42??? ? ?? protease ? amylase ? ??, biotin ?? Bacillus subtilis : ??? a - amylase ? protease (85~95? ?? ??) Bacillus megaterium : Vitamin.B12 ???? Bacillus stearothermophilus : ????? ??? ?? ??. 65?? ????? ???? ??? ???. ?? F0-Value = 12 ~ 15 ? Bacillus coagulans : ???? flat sour (????)?, ?????? ??. ??? ???. ?? ??.

32. ???? Coliform bacteria (???? ??) : ????( Enterobacteriaceae) ??? ??? ??? ???? Gm- , ???, ?? ?????? ??(1~4um)?? ??? ?? ???? ??. ??? ???? CO2 ? H2 ?? . ?Escherichia ? (??? ?) : ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? (????). ???. ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? 37?? 10~45??? ??, ph 7? ????? 20??. ??? ????? ???? ?????? indol? ???? ??? ??. ??????? ??, ??, ???, ???? ??-> methyl red???? ??. ?? ??? ???? ???, E. coli O157? ??? ???, ??? ????? ??, ??? ??? ?? ? ????? ??, ???? ex) E. coli

36. Listeria? ????? ????????, ??? 1?? ?????? ??, ????? ?? ?? Listeria monocytogenes: ???? ?? ??, ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ????. ???? ???? ??? ???, ????? ????

37. II.??? ( mold ) <??? Aspergillus oryzae> ????? ??? ??? ?? ·? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???. ·?? : ??? ?? ???? ???(true fungi)? ??? ?? ? ?? ???, ???(mycelium)? ??(hyphae)? ??(fruiting body)? ???. ???? ???? ???? ??? ??(colony)?? ?

39. < ???? ?? > 1. ????? ?? ????, ??, ??? ??: Mucor, Rhizopus, Aspersillus, Penicillium ??? ?: Aspersillus flavus (calcinogen? aflatoxin ??) 2. ???? ?? ??, ?? , ?? -> Aspersillus ? ?? -> Penicillum ? ??? -> Aspersillus niger Vitamin B12 ?? -> Eremothecium ashibyii ???? amylase: Aspersillus, Rhizopus ? protease: //

40. <???? ????.> - ???? ??? ??? ???? ??. -???? ???? ? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?????. -??? ???? (pH, ??, ??, ??, O) ? ????? ???? ??? ?? -? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???. ?. ???? (Sexual spore) ???? ???? ????? ?? ?? ? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????. ex) ???? : ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? : ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??

85. 1. ???? ?? ( Ascosporogenous yeasts) ? Schizosaccharomyces? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????. ? ?? ?? ?? 4~8?? ?? ??. ·Schizosaccharomyces pombe : Pombe?? ?? Africa ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??. ???? ??? ??? ????? glucan ??. ?? ??? 37?? ??. glucose, maltose, sucrose, dextrin? inulin ? ???? ? ??. gelatin? ???? ·Schizosaccharomyces octosporus : ????? ??? ??. Gelatin ???? ?? glucose? maltose? ???? sucrose? lactose? ???? ??? ·Schizosaccharomyces mallacei : ????? rum ? ??? ???? ?? ???? glucose, maltose, sucrose, mannose? ??

99. 1. ?? ???? ?? ? ?? ? Screening : ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??, ???? ?? ???? : ???? ?? ??? ????? agar plate ? ????. ???? : ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????. ??(identification) : ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??

101. Biotechnology(????, ????) : ???, ?? ? ????? ?? ??, ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? Substrate ? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???, ????, ???, ????, ???? ?? ??? ??? ????.

117. -

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