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Integrating Preventive Oral Health Measures Into HealthCare Practice A Discussion of Oral Disease Department of Health and Family Services, Division of Public Health Presented by: Wisconsin Regional Oral Health Consultants Funded by : The Federal Maternal and Child Health Block Grant

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Integrating preventive oral health measures into healthcare practice l.jpg

Integrating Preventive Oral Health Measures Into HealthCare Practice

A Discussion of Oral Disease

Department of Health and

Family Services, Division of Public Health


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Presented by: Practice

Wisconsin Regional Oral Health Consultants

Funded by :

  • The Federal Maternal and Child Health Block Grant

  • Health Resources Services Administration

    Thank you to:

  • Nevada State Health Division Oral Health Initiatives for their cooperation and many resources

  • Nancy Rublee, RDH, CDHC CDHC

    Price County Oral Health Coordinator


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Maternal Oral Health Practice

  • Discuss the incidence, prevalence, etiology and socio-cultural factors of oral disease

  • Review growth, development, and function of teeth

  • Describe oral disease processes (caries and periodontal)

  • Review physiologic changes during pregnancy

  • Review the effect of oral diseases on pregnancy

  • Explain maternal oral health risk assessments

  • Describe oral disease prevention and health promotion strategies


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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Practice

  • Development of Tooth Buds

    • The primary teeth begin to form around the 4th week in utero.

    • Mineralization begins around the fourth month of fetal development.

    • The permanent teeth begin to form around the sixth month in utero.


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Sequence of Eruption Practice

  • Eruption usually occurs symmetrically in each arch.

  • Mandibular (lower) teeth generally precede the maxillary (upper) teeth.

  • Sequence of eruption is more important than the timing.

  • Premature babies and children with special health care needs may have a delayed eruption pattern.



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Function of Healthy Teeth Practice

  • Chewing and eating

  • Speech

  • Smiling

  • Self-esteem

  • Loss of function contributes to health problems, speech impediments and loss of self-esteem


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Dental Caries PracticeIncidence and Prevalence

Among 5- to 17-year-olds, dental caries is more than 5 times as common as a reported history of asthma and 7 times as common as hay fever.

Despite progress in reducing dental caries, individuals in families living below the poverty level experience more dental decay that those who are economically better off.

In addition to poverty level, the proportion of teeth affected by dental caries also varies by age and race/ethnicity.

Oral Health in America: A report of the Surgeon General, May 2000


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Anatomy of a Tooth Practice

  • Enamel

  • Dentin

  • Cementoenamel junction

  • Cementum

  • Vascular supply

  • Nerve

  • Soft tissue

  • Periodontal ligament


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Dental Caries Process Practice

  • Host -Tooth

  • Agent - Bacteria

  • Environment - pH

  • Time - Frequency


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Dental Caries: Multifactorial Practice

  • Enamel Developmental Defects

  • Lack of Fluoride

  • Early Infection

  • with Strep Mutans

  • Harmful

  • Food Behaviors

Agent

(bacteria)

Time

(frequency)

Host

(teeth)

Environment

(diet)

  • Poor Oral Hygiene

  • Access to Oral Health Services


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Dental Caries Process: Etiology Practice

  • Host:

    • Susceptible teeth

    • Crown (covered with enamel)

    • Pits and fissures (sealants)

    • Smooth surface

    • Root surface is not covered by enamel


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Dental Caries Process: Etiology Practice

  • Agent

    • Mutans Streptococci (ms),

    • Lactobacilli (deep dentinal lesions)

    • Mutans Strep colonization occurs after the eruption of primary teeth

    • Transmission

    • The earlier the colonization of mutans strep the greater the risk


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Dental Caries Process: Etiology Practice

  • Environment

    • Mutans Streptococci utilize mono and disaccharides (glucose, fructose & sucrose) during glycolosis

    • Results in acid byproduct which lowers the pH

    • Bacteria attach to the tooth forming a plaque.

    • Sugar consumed as a snack between meals is associated with a marked increase in caries.


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Dental Caries Process: Etiology Practice

  • Time

    • Length of time

    • Frequency


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Recurring Dental Decay Practice

  • White spot lesion

Decay


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Super Eruption Practice



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Dental Caries Practice


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Maternal PracticeDental Caries Risk Assessment Checklist

See Training Manual

Tab 1

Maternal Dental Caries Risk Assessment


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Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy that Affect Oral Health Practice

  • Hormonal effects(mainly estrogen) may:

    • Increase tooth mobility

    • Cause Xerostomia (dry mouth) or Ptyalism (excessive saliva)

  • Clinical signs of pregnancy gingivitis are:

    • Inflammation

    • Hemorrhage

    • Edema


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Generalized Acute Marginal Gingivitis Practice

Plaque

Inflammation


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Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy that Affect Oral Health Practice

  • Esophageal reflux and vomitus may cause tooth erosion

  • Pregnancy granuloma (pregnancy tumor)




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Effect of Oral Diseases on Pregnancy Practice

  • Preterm, low birth weight (LBW) linked to periodontal disease

  • Studies:

    • Offenbacher et al. 1998

      • Prostaglandin is an inflammatory mediator associated with labor and the inflammatory process.

      • Found PGE2 significantly higher in gingival crevicular fluids of women who give birth preterm.


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Studies Practice

  • Jeffcoat et al. 2001

  • Jeffcoat et al. 2003

    Women who receive periodontal root planing and scaling are less likely to give birth prematurely.


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Periodontal Diseases PracticeIncidence and Prevalence

  • Among adults aged 35-44, 48 percent have gingivitis.

  • 22 percent have destructive gum disease.

  • Tobacco use increases the risk of periodontal disease.

    Oral Health 2000: Facts and Figures, U.S. Department of

    Health and Human Services, May 2000.


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Periodontal Diseases Practice

  • Gingivitis: is limited to the gingival tissues

  • Periodontitis: infects the periodontal ligament and the underlying bone.


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Periodontal Disease: Etiology Practice

Environmental and Acquired Risk Factors

Antigens,Lipopolysaccharide

1. Microbial

Challenge

2. Host Immuno-

Inflammatory

Response

3. Connective Tissue

and Bone Metabolism

4. Clinical Signs

of Disease

Initiation and

Progression

Cytokines/Prostanoids

Antibody/PMN’s

Metalloproteins MMP’s

Innate (Genetic) Risk Factors

Reprinted with permission from The Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry. Williams RC. Periodontal Disease:

The Emergence of a New Paradigm. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 1998;19(Special Issue):4-10.


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Periodontal Disease: Etiology Practice

  • Microbial Challenge:

    • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    • Porphyromonas gingivalis

    • Bacteroides forsythus

    • T. Denticola

    • Significantly higher quantities are found in the mouths of women who gave birth preterm.


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Host Immuno-inflammatory Response Practice

  • Allows bacteria to gain access to connective tissue and blood vessels

  • PGE2, IL-1 and TNF released during the inflammatory process mediates bone resorption

  • MMP’s degrade collagenous connective tissue

  • Leads to connective tissue destruction, bone metabolism and signs of disease


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Periodontal Disease and Heart Disease Practice

  • Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels increase the risk for cardiovascular disease.

  • Periodontal disease causes oral bacterial byproducts to enter the bloodstream and triggers the liver to make proteins such as CRP.

  • "Periodontal disease needs to be considered as a major contributor to increased levels of CRP by the medical community," said Dr. Steven Offenbacher.

  • Periodontal disease and body mass index are jointly associated with increased levels of CRP in healthy adults.


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Gingivitis Practice


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Healthy Gingiva Practice

Pink healthy tissue


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Inflamed Gingiva Practice

Red, edematous tissue


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Healthy Gingiva Practice

Pink, healthy tissue






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Periodontitis: Practice Medical Risk Relationship

Diabetes

  • Poorly controlled or diabetics of long duration are at greater risk.

  • Accumulation of deposits known as “AGE’s” may interfere with transport across the vessel wall, prolonging inflammation.

  • Well-controlled diabetics receiving regular maintenance care are no more likely to develop periodontitis than non-diabetics.


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Women's Oral Health and PracticePeriodontal Disease

  • Menopause and Osteoporosis

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

  • Cardiovascular Disease

  • Pregnancy


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Maternal PracticePeriodontal Disease Risk Assessment Checklist

See Training Manual

Tab 1

Maternal Periodontal Disease Risk Assessment


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Innate Risk Factors Practice

Race

Gender

Genetic Info./Inheritance

Congenital Abnormalities

Phagocyte dysfunction

Down’s Syndrome

Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

Periodontal Disease: Risk Factors


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Risk Factors continued Practice

Acquired/Environmental Risk Factors

  • Poor Oral Hygiene

  • Age

  • Medications

  • Tobacco/Smoking

  • Stress

  • Acquired Immune Defects

  • Acquired Endocrine Disease

  • Acquired Inflammatory Disease

  • Nutritional Deficiencies


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Basic Screening Survey (BSS) Practice

  • Standardized screening

  • Developed by the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors

  • Adults, School-Aged and Preschool Children

  • Used across the country in public health for data collection

  • Used for Wisconsin’s Make Your Smile Count Data Collection and Seal a Smile programs


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Adult Basic Screening Form Practice

See Training Manual:

TAB 1


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Adult Screening Form Practice

1

1

1

0

1

1


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Adult Screening Form Practice

1. Edentulous

2. Untreated Caries

3. Treatment Urgency

4. Periodontal Disease Risk Factors or Signs

of Inflammation Present


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Natural Teeth Practice

  • 0=No natural teeth

  • 1=Has natural teeth



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2. Untreated Caries Practice

  • 0=No untreated caries

  • 1=untreated caries present





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Staining verses Caries Practice

  • GUIDELINE - area considered carious when at least 1/2 mm of enamel is lost (a hole is present)

  • WHEN IN DOUBT - Be conservative and use a lower classification


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Code 0: No untreated caries Practice(What else do you see?)


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3. Treatment Urgency Practice

  • Code 2: Urgent or emergency need for dental care (within 24 hours)

    • pain or infection, swelling or soft tissue ulceration of more than 2 weeks duration

    • overriding accompanying signs (multiple decay)

  • Code 1: Early dental care is needed (within several weeks)

  • Code 0: No obvious problems (next regular checkup)



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Code 2: Urgent PracticePeriodontal or Gingival Abscess





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Prevention Strategies for Periodontal Disease Practice

The goal is to prevent gingival inflammation and

increase or maintain the resistance of the host.

  • Assess risk

  • Promote optimum oral hygiene

  • Improve nutritional status

  • Promote smoking cessation


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Maternal Prevention Strategies Practice

  • Fluoride

    • Assess fluoride sources

    • Low-dose frequent exposure to topical fluorides will increase the resistance of the host

  • Dental sealants

  • Promote optimal oral hygiene

  • Assess nutrition status

    • Soda consumption


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Xylitol – Research Practice

  • Xylitol is a natural sugar substitute in a group of pentitol compounds containing five hydroxyl groups know as sugar alcohols.

  • Recent research demonstrates xylitol has anticariogenic properties.

  • Xylitol has been used in the United States as a sweetener in food since the 1960’s.


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Xylitol Practice

  • According to recent studies xylitol accumulates intracellularly in S. mutans. This inhibits the bacteria’s growth. In addition, the bacteria appears less adherent to tooth surfaces.

    Trahan L, Xylitol: a review of its action on mutans streptococci and dental plaque--its clinical significance. INT Dent J 45:77-92, 1995.

  • Maternal use of xylitol alters the oral environment by limiting the ability of bacteria to adhere to the tooth and produce acid.

    Journal of Dental Research 81(6):380-386, 2002


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Xylitol / Chlorhexidine Practice

  • Certain studies indicate that xylitol gum in combination with other dental therapies is associated with the arrest of carious lesions.

    Lynch H, Milgrom P. Xylitol and dental caries: an overview for clinicians: J Calif Dent Assoc. 2003 Mar;31(3):205-9.

  • Chlorhexidine rinses for two weeks followed by daily use of xylitol gum led to major reductions in S.mutans.

    Hildebrandt GH, Sparks BS, Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression with xylitol chewing gum. J Am Dent Assoc 131(7):909-16,2000.


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Thank You Practice

Questions?


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