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Lesson One. TSWBAT: CO 1. Identify causes of infectious diseases. CO 2. Describe four ways in which infectious disease are spread. LO 1. Using a graphic organizer to chart disease causing pathogens and the diseases they cause. Critical Vocabulary. Infectious Disease Microscopic Organism

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Lesson one l.jpg
Lesson One

TSWBAT:

CO 1. Identify causes of infectious diseases.

CO 2. Describe four ways in which infectious disease are spread.

LO 1. Using a graphic organizer to chart disease causing pathogens

and the diseases they cause


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Critical Vocabulary

Infectious Disease Microscopic Organism

Pathogen Bacteria

Toxin Fungi

Protozoan


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Understanding Infectious Diseases

Infectious disease are caused by organisms or viruses that enter and multiply within the human body. Most are so small that they can be seen only through a microscope. Organisms this small are called microorganisms. Microorganisms and viruses that cause disease are called pathogens. Pathogens can cause an infectious disease when they enter your body and multiply.

There are many kinds of pathogens. Bacteria are simple, single-celled microorganisms. Some bacteria injure cells by giving off poisons called toxins. Viruses, the smallest pathogens, can multiply only after entering living cells. Fungi, such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, grow best in warm, dark, moist areas. Protozoan, single-celled organisms that are much larger and more complex than bacteria, cause diseases such as malaria. Other pathogens include mites, lice, and certain worms.


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Pathogens

Pathogens can spread through contact with an infected person; an infected animal; contaminated objects; or contaminated food, soil, or water.

  • Infected people can spread diseases either through direct physical contact, such as shaking hands, or through indirect contact, such as sneezing.

  • Infected animals can transmit disease by biting a person.

  • Pathogens that can survive for a period outside the body can spread through contaminated objects such as eating utensils or doorknobs.

  • Food, soil, or water can spread pathogens that were either present naturally or introduced by infected people.


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Warm-up

Myth:

Fact:

Writing: Do you think most teens was their hands as much as they should? What do you think are some ways to encourage more frequent hand washing?


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Causes of Infectious Diseases

Pathogen

Description

Examples of Diseases

Bacteria a. __________ b. tetanus

__________ c. ______

Virus d. __________ e. Common cold

__________ f. ____________

Fungi g. __________ h. athlete’s foot

__________ i. ___________

Protozoan j. __________ k. malaria

__________ l. ____________

1. Complete the table with details about different kinds of pathogens.


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How Pathogens are Spread

pathogens

are spread by

a.Infected

people

b. _____

d. ______

c. _____

such as

such as

such as

through

g. ______

i. ______

h. ______

f. _____

e. ______

m. ______

k. ______

j. ______

l. ______

2. Complete the concept map about how disease are spread.


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Practice

Passing It On

Most infectious diseases are spread through direct or indirect contact with a person who has the disease. The common cold is spread in this way. The diagram on the next slide can give you an idea of how an infectious disease spread from one person to the next. Each box represents a person, and the lines connecting the boxes represent handshakes. For example, the person in Level A as you will see shook hands with both people in Level B.


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Application

Level A

1.If the person in Level A has an infectious disease that can be spread by

direct contact, how many people in Level E can trace their exposure back

to that person?____

2. How can people with colds avoid exposing others to the disease? ____

Level B

Level C

D

E


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Review

  • What is a pathogen? Name four types of pathogens.

  • How do pathogens cause infectious diseases?

  • What is a virus? How are viruses different from bacteria?

  • What are four ways that infectious diseases can spread?

    Critical Thinking

    Relating Cause and Effect: Why do you think that communities boil their drinking water after a water line break?


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Lesson Quiz 1

  • D

  • E

  • B

  • A

  • F

  • True

  • False

  • True

  • True

  • False


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Lesson Two

CO 1. Identify the body’s physical and chemical defenses against infectious disease.

CO 2. Describe the inflammatory response.

CO 3. Summarize how the immune system works.

CO 4. Compare passive and active immunity.

LO 2. List the step-by-step process of the inflammatory response.


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Critical Vocabulary

Mucous Membrane Inflammation

Phagocyte Immune system Lymphocyte

Immunity T-Cell B-Cell

Antibody Lymphatic system Immunization

Vaccine


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Defenses Against Disease

Your body’s first line of defense against infectious disease includes both physical and chemical defenses that prevent pathogens from entering your body. Your skin, saliva and tears, and digestive system function as both physical and chemical barriers against pathogens. The openings into your body, such as your mouth, eyes, and nose, are covered by protective linings called mucous membranes. Mucous membranes secrete mucus and other substances that trap or attack pathogens. Cilia, hairlike structures that line the mucous membranes, catch and remove pathogens.

Inflammation is your body’s second line of defense against infection. Inflammation is your body’s general response to al kinds of injury, from cuts and scrapes to internal damage. When an area of the body is injured, blood, fluids, and white blood cells called phagocytes leak from enlarged vessels at the site of the injury. Theses substances destroy pathogens.


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Immune System

The immune system is your body’s third line of defense. The immune system fights disease by producing a separate set of weapons for each kind of pathogen it encounters. White blood cells called lymphocytes carry out most of the immune system’s functions. There are two types of lymphocytes.

  • T cells perform several functions, including destroying infected body cells and producing chemicals.

  • B cells produce antibodies, proteins that attach to the surfaces of pathogens or to the toxins produced by pathogens.

    Much of your immune system is contained within your lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels that collects fluid from your tissues and returns it to your bloodstream.


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Immunity

Immunity is your body’s ability to destroy pathogens that it has previously encountered before the pathogens can cause disease. There are two types of immunity.

  • Passive immunity is acquired by receiving antibodies from a source other than one’s own immune system.

  • Active immunity results from having a disease or from receiving a vaccine.

    Injections that cause you to become immune to a disease are called immunizations. The substance that is injected is called a vaccine.


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Warm-up

Quick Quiz

Writing: For each of your responses, explain how your behavior could affect your chances of getting or spreading an infectious disease.


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Physical and Chemical Defenses

1. Compare the table about the body’s first line of defense against

pathogens.


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Figure 4

Look at Figure four page 554. This micrograph shows a phagocyte (blue) attacking a bacteria (pink). Phagocytes kill pathogens by engulfing and then digesting them.


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Inflammation

B cell

  • 2. In what two ways does inflammation help protect the body?

  • ___________________________________________

  • ___________________________________________

  • The Immune System

  • 3. Label the main steps of the immune response in the diagram

1

2

T cell

Infected

cells

3

T cell

virus

Antibodies

Y Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

4


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Passive and Active Immunity

Passive Immunity Active Immunity

  • ___________ d. ____________

  • ___________ ____________

  • ___________ ____________

  • b. ___________ e. ____________

  • ___________ ____________

  • ___________ ____________

c. ____

______

______

4. Compare passive and active immunity by completing the Venn

diagram. Write seminaries where the circles overlap, and differences on

the left and right sides.


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Practice

The body has three lines of defenses to guard against infections.

Defending Against Infection Group Activity

The body uses three lines of defense to guard against infections;

physical and chemical defense systems, inflammation, and the immune

system. The three lines of defense can be abbreviated as follows:

P&C = physical and chemical defense system; INF = inflammation;

IMM = immune system.

With a partner, identify and discuss the line of defense used in the

infectious situations listed in the left column of the chart on the next

slide. Then fill in the right column of the chart using your own words.

A sample has been provided.



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Review

  • Name five physical and chemical defenses that prevent pathogens from entering your body.

  • How does the inflammation process fight an infection in the body?

  • What is a lymphocyte?

  • How do the T cells and B cells of your immune system respond to pathogens?

  • How are passive immunity and active immunity simliar? How are they different?

    Critical Thinking

    Applying Concepts: Name two physical defenses that would protect your body against pathogens that might be found in a swimming pool.


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Lesson Quiz 2

  • C

  • F

  • A

  • D

  • B

  • C

  • D

  • A

  • A

  • B


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Lesson Three

TSWBAT:

CO 1. Identify some diseases caused by bacteria and by viruses.

CO 2. Describe behaviors that can help you get healthy and stay healthy.

LO 3. Complete an outline with details about common infectious diseases to include symptoms, treatment, prevention, diagnoses and how they spread.



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Common Infectious Diseases

  • Four infectious diseases caused by bacteria are strep throat, Lyme disease, meningitis, and tuberculosis. Strep throat is common among teenagers. Symptoms include sore throat, swollen nodes, headache, and fever. People can become infected with the bacteria that cause Lyme disease when they are bitten by an infected tick. Symptoms include a rash at the site of the bite.

  • Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the fluid surrounding the spinal cord and the brain. Symptoms include headache, high fever, stiff neck, and vomiting. Early treatment is critical to prevent serious illness or death. Tuberculosis is a highly contagious infection of the lungs. It is spread form person to person through coughing or sneezing. Symptoms may not occur for years after the initial infection. A bacterial disease may be treated with antibiotic, a drug that inhibits or kills bacteria.


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Viral Diseases

  • Viral diseases include the common cold, influenza, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The common cold is really a group of symptoms caused by a number of viruses. Colds are spread through contact with infected people or contaminated objects.

  • Influenza, or the flu, is an infection of the upper respiratory system. It is spread the same way as a cold, but can cause more serious symptoms, such as a high fever. In some cases, influenza can develop into pneumonia, a serious ling infection. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Sympto9ms include fever, pain the the abdomen, and yellowing of the skin. The most common types of hepatitis are A, B, and C. most viral infections cannot be cured by medication. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses.


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Protect your Health

  • If you are not worried about your health for any reason, see a doctor and discuss your concerns with him or her.

  • You can protect yourself from infectious diseases in three ways: by avoiding contact with pathogens, by making sure that your immunizations are current, and by choosing healthful behaviors. One important healthful behavior is to wash you hands several times a day


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Bacterial and Viral Diseases

1. Complete the outline by adding details about common infectious diseases.

A. Strep throat D. Tuberculosis

1. Symptoms ___________ 1. Description ___________

2. Diagnosis ___________ 2. Spread by ____________

B. Lyme disease 3. Symptoms ___________

1. Spread by ___________ E. Treating bacterial diseases

2. Spread by ___________ 1. Treatment ____________

C. Bacterial meningitis

1. Description __________

2. Symptoms ___________


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Viral Diseases

II Viral Diseases

A. The common cold D. Hepatitis

1. Description _________ 1. Description ________

2. Symptoms __________ 2. Symptoms ________

3. Spread by __________ 3. Types _____________

B. Influenza E. Treating viral disease

1. Description _________ 1. Treatment _________

2. Spread by __________

3. Symptoms __________

4. Prevention _________

C. Pneumonia ___________

1. People at risk ________

2. Description __________


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Skill Builder

Felicia got home from her after-school job, ate dinner, and sat down

to study. All of the sudden, she realized she had forgotten to take an

antibiotic tablet earlier that day. Her doctor had prescribed the

antibiotic for her strap throat. Should Felicia take two tablets now to

make up for the one she missed? Or should she just take one tablet now?


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Practice the Skill

On the next slide is a prescription, answer the following questions for that prescription. Write these questions in your notebook.

1. What medicine has been prescribed?

2. What is the dosage?

3. How often should the person take the medicine?

4. Should this medicine be taken with meals?

5. Are there specific foods or fluids that should not be taken with this medicine?

6. Should the person stop taking the medicine as soon as symptoms of the illness disappear?


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Using Medicines Correctly

180 Woodward Dr

St. Charles, MO Dr. C. Chin

0060023 Date 05/14/07

John Smith

123 Main St. Any town, US 11111

take one capsule by mouth three times daily

for ten days until all taken

Amoxicillin 500mg capsules

Qty 30 MFC Doug Maker, inc

No refills –Dr. Authorization required

Use before 05/14/08

A. the name and

strength

C. Directions for how much

Medicine you should take

The dosage and how often to

Take it

Call Dr. immediately if you

experience severe vomiting

diarrhea, or skin rash

B. Number of

pills or capsules

provided

Esparza’s Pharmacy ph (800) 555-5555

D. The expiration date

E. Special Warnings or

precautions

F. Warnings about side

effects

Take on an empty

stomach 3 hrs before

or 2 hrs after meals

unless directed by Dr.


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Review

  • List four bacterial disease.

  • What is an antibiotic? What type of pathogen does it work against?

  • List four viral diseases. Describe how a mild viral infection might be treated.

  • Describe five symptoms that should prompt you to seek medical care.

  • Identify three healthful behaviors that can help you avoid infectious diseases.

    Critical Thinking

    Relating Cause and Effect Children usually have more infectious diseases per year than adults. Why do you think this is so?


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Lesson Quiz 3

  • A

  • A

  • D

  • D

  • B

  • True

  • True

  • False

  • True

  • False


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Lesson Four

TSWBAT:

CO 1. Define the term emerging disease.

CO 2. Identify five reasons why diseases emerge.

LO 4. Using a graphic organizer list details about how disease emerge.


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Critical Vocabulary

Epidemic

Emerging Disease


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Emerging Infectious Diseases

  • An epidemic is an unusually high occurrence of a disease in a certain place at a certain time. If an epidemic affects many areas of the world, it ma be called a pandemic.

  • Some of the diseases that cause epidemics today are know as emerging diseases. An emerging disease is an infectious disease that has become increasingly common in humans within the last two years or threatens to become more common the the near future. Some emerging diseases are avian flu,

  • SARS (Severe Acute Respirator Syndrome), yellow fever, dengue fever, and West Nile virus.


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Disease Emerge

  • Disease emerge when humans come into contact with infected animals; pathogens become resistant to existing drugs; or people lack appropriate immunizations. In addition, the increased frequency of international travel and a global food supply can enable emerging diseases to spread very quickly. An example of an emerging disease caused by animals is avian flu. Diseases can become drug resistant because the pathogens can mutate, or change over time. Some diseases remain a threat in areas of the world I witch people have not received vaccines. World travelers who carry pathogens can spread the pathogen around the world in a short amount of time. Pathogens in foods that travel around the world can cause disease outbreaks. Mad cow disease is an infectious disease that was spread by beef distributed to several countries.


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Warm-up

Health Stats

Writing:Should the United States be concerned about dengue fever? Explain


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What is an emerging disease

  • Define what is meant by the term emerging disease. An emerging disease is ____

  • __________________________________________________________________

  • Why do Diseases Emerge?

  • 2. Complete the table with details about the factors responsible for emerging diseases.


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Practice

Factors Responsible for SCARS

SCARS is a freighting infectious disease that emerged in the early twenty-first century. At first, scientists had little idea about where the pathogen came from. And investigation followed, and by 2005, researchers felt confident that they understood how SCARS emerged.

  • Write down the four questions, then read next slide.

  • 1. What are the symptoms of SCARS?

  • 2. How does SCARS spread form person to person?

  • 3. Explain how the first contributing factor you identified contributed

  • to the spread of SCATS.

  • Explain how the second contributing factor you identified contributed

  • to the spread of SCATS.


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Application

Cases of SCARS first appeared in southern China in 2002. The illness usually begins with a high fever-over 100 degrees F. other symptoms include headache, body aches, and dry cough. A type of pneumonia can follow. The disease can be deadly. Researchers discovered that the SCARS virus is spread by close person-to-person contact. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, infected droplets spread through the air and can be breathed in by others. An infected person can also contaminate objects such as a doorknob.

Scientist found that SCARS emerged mainly because of close contact between humans and infected animals. Investigators in China discovered that the virus is widespread both in a type of bat and another wild mammal called civet. These animals were sold for food at markets in China and likely spread the virus to humans.

People became sick form SCARS in China and in other countries. For example, there were over 100 cases reported in Canada in 2003. There were also cases reported in the United States, though no deaths. The movement of disease from country to country was the result of international travel by people on business or vacation.


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Review

  • What is an epidemic?

  • Explain what is meant of an emerging disease. Give an example of an emerging disease.

  • List five factors that contribute to the development of emerging disease.

    Critical Thinking

    Predicting: If you were traveling from a country with high rates of yellow fever, you could not enter some other countries without proof of a yellow fever vaccination. Predict what might happen if vaccinations were not required.


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Lesson Quiz 4

  • False

  • True

  • True

  • True

  • False

  • B

  • A

  • C

  • B

  • D


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Chapter 21 Test

11. C

12. F

13. A

14. D

15. B

16. Infectious

17. Toxins

18. Emerging

19. A vaccine causes a person’s

immune system to produce anti-

bodies against the pathogen, as if

the person had actually been infected.

20. You can avoid contact with

pathogens, make sure that your immunizations are current, and choose healthful behaviors.

  • C

  • B

  • A

  • C

  • B

  • True

  • False

  • True

  • True

  • False


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