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Exploring the Internet Session 1 Introduction to the Internet and World Wide Web Internet Definitions - p. 1 Network - set of hardware and software components that supports several people working together and allows sharing of hardware, software, and information

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Exploring the Internet

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Exploring the Internet

Session 1

Introduction to the Internet and World Wide Web


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Internet Definitions - p. 1

  • Network - set of hardware and software components that supports several people working together and allows sharing of hardware, software, and information

  • Internet - a network of networks that allows you to communicate with people anywhere in the world as well as access information that you desire any time of the day or night


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Internet Definitions (cont.)

  • Started in the 1960s as a joint project between education, and government (ARPANET) for defense purposes.

  • World Wide Web (WWW) - easy method of sending text, graphics, and sound has resulted in explosive growth

  • Web browser - piece of software needed for accessing WWW


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Internet

  • Today, mostly used for commercial purposes.

  • Includes many different types of resources. The one that is most prevalent today is the World Wide Web (WWW).

  • Allows millions of people from around the world to communicate with one another.

    • Responsible for the fall of the iron curtain

    • Role in Gulf War

    • Totalitarian governments despise it


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Internet Connection Necessities

  • Modem or network connection

  • Internet account

  • Internet Service Provider (ISP) -university, AOL, Dave’s World, and so forth

  • Software Utilities

  • Browser software


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Internet Addresses

  • Account - individual that you are communicating with

  • Domain

    • Lower domain - the name of the organization where the account can be found

    • Top domain - the type of organization


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Internet Addresses

  • To communicate with someone, you have to know their Internet address (everything after “@” is the domain):

astudent@rs6000.cmp.ilstu.edu

At the computer named rs6000.cmp

This User (account)

An educational institution

At Illinois State University


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Top Domains - p. 5

  • .comcommercial or business site

  • .edueducational site

  • .govU.S. government site

  • .milU.S. military site

  • .netnetwork site

  • .orgprivate or non-profit site


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Proposed Top Domains

  • .firmBusinesses or firms

  • .shopBus. offering goods for purchase

  • .webWeb-based Entities

  • .artsCultural or entertainment activities

  • .recRecreational or entertainment entity

  • .infoInformation services entities

  • .nomIndividual or personal sites


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Starting an Internet Session

  • Obtain communication with your ISP

    • Login procedure - identifies you to the host computer

    • Password - series of characters that verifies to the computer that you are a valid user

      • Asterisks may appear as you enter it

      • Never give your password to anyone


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Internet Services

  • Electronic Mail

  • Usenet/Newsgroups

  • Listserv

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

  • Telnet

  • Gopher and Veronica

  • Internet Relay Chat

  • World Wide Web


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E-mail - p. 6

  • E-mail - ability to send and receive messages using the computer.

  • Uses special software designed specifically for this task

    • Pine, Elm (UNIX)

    • Eudora

    • Exchange

  • Single or many recipients possible

  • Flaming


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E-mail Etiquette - p. 7

  • Keep message brief and concise

  • Don’t send confidential or embarrassing info.

  • Remember, the message belongs to the org.

  • Don’t copy unnecessary people

  • Don’t use all upper case letters

  • Include a salutation and signature line

  • You may want to use shorthand (abbreviations) - Table 1.2

  • Emoticons help to show how you feel - Table 1.3

  • Avoid all gossip or impropriety using E-mail


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Usenet/Newsgroups - p. 9

  • Interactive discussions that can occur on a wide variety o f subjects

  • Postings are E-mail messages to the newsgroup

  • Information is arranged by topic or by areas of interest

  • 100s of group names/topics are available


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Usenet/Newsgroups

  • Selected group names or categories

    • compcomputers

    • miscdon’t fit a category

    • recrecreational activities or hobbies

    • sciscientific areas

    • socsocial, cultural, and political

    • talkdiscussion forums for politics or other areas with controversy


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Listserv

  • Listserv - consists of all e-mail messages related to a single topic

  • A document containing these e-mail messages is sent to all subscribers

  • All that is required to access is e-mail software

  • Many times listservs are used for conducting classes


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Agent - Newsgroup browser


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Newsgroup Guidelines

  • Review the frequently asked questions (FAQ) document for that group.

  • Review the last two or three weeks of the articles or postings to get a flavor for the group.

  • Spend some time “lurking” examining the group without posting.

  • Be careful with your first postings. If participants feel you don’t understand elementary items, you will probably get flamed.


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File Transfer Protocol - p. 13

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - method of transferring files across the Internet

  • Can be done with UNIX statements

  • Can be done with special FTP software

  • May be built in as an integral part of a piece of browser software for the Web

  • Many times referred to as anonymous FTP because most users use their name when requesting files.


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FTP Client Software Utility

Your System (where you want to receive the files)

Where the files currently reside


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Telnet - p. 14

  • Allows you to communicate directly with another computer

  • Unlike FTP, it does not allow you to download files

  • Many times used to gain access to other libraries, get weather forecasts, and so forth


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Gopher and Veronica - p. 14

  • Gopher - text-based, menu driven program that allows you to access, view, and download files (developed at U. of Minn.)

  • Precursor to WWW

  • Veronica is the search engine for finding files from multiple gopher sites


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Internet Relay Chat

  • Permits you to communicate “live” with other Internet users

  • Needs special software that can be downloaded from a number of locations

  • Requires you to log in to a chat room

  • Statements that you type are visible to other participants


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World Wide Web (WWW or Web)

  • Designed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee

  • Combines text, graphics, sound as a “packet” of information

  • Phenomenally rapid growth

  • Requires the use of a software browser to interpret the data needed for a site and then download it to the user and display/play properly


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World Wide Web Terminology

  • Web Browser - A piece of software that can understand and display Web documents (Netscape and Explorer are two commonly used browsers)

  • Home page - The initial Web page Netscape loads when you start the program

  • Uniform Resource Locator - The location of a page on the World Wide Web

  • Web Document - A specially designed file for use on the Web than can contain text, graphics, sound, and links to other Web pages.


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More Web Terminology

  • Hyperlinks - “Jumps” to a different location in the document, a different document on the computer, or a different computer

  • http - Hypertext transfer protocol - the first four letters in each URL - indicates that the browser can expect text, graphic, or sound files

  • HTML - HyperText Markup Language - the ASCII based language used to describe a Web page so that it can be interpreted by the browser software for loading text, images, or sound files.

  • Surfing - Navigating links of Web pages


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Web Browsers

  • A number of different kinds of browsers

    • Netscape

    • Internet Explorer

    • Mosaic

  • Netscape the browser selected by ISU


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Internet Explorer Screen

  • Menu bar

  • Toolbars

  • Address text box

  • Document window

  • Status bar

  • Scroll bars

  • Status indicator


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Web Surfing

  • Enter an address in the Location box

  • Click on a link

    • Pointer turns into a hand with the upraised index finger to indicate a link

    • Click the link and that page is loaded

  • Role of the Forward and Back buttons

  • Favorites


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More Surfing

  • Printing a Web page

  • Saving pages

  • Accessing saved pages

  • Using the Context menu

    • Saving images

    • Images are typically GIF and JPG files


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Other Web Browser Uses

  • Accessing Search Engines

    • Search Engine

      • Types - Pip handout

      • Search Spiders

    • Research using the Web

  • E-Mail

  • Newsgroups


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Research Using the Computer

  • Searching for information on the Web

    • Start with a search engine

    • Success depends on how the search engine determines sites

    • Lots of “garbage” on the Web

  • Searching a library using Telnet or Browser


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