Urban governance and politics
Advertisement
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 19

Urban Governance and Politics PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Urban Governance and Politics. Geg309 Urban Geography. Instructor: Jun Yan Geography Department SUNY at Buffalo. Last Class. City As Growth Machines and Services Providers (1945-1973) Urban renewal & growth machines Grassroots protest: black politics

Download Presentation

Urban Governance and Politics

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Urban governance and politics

Urban Governance and Politics

Geg309 Urban Geography

Instructor: Jun Yan

Geography Department

SUNY at Buffalo


Last class

Last Class

  • City As Growth Machines and Services Providers (1945-1973)

    • Urban renewal & growth machines

    • Grassroots protest: black politics

    • Struggles for social and territorial justice


Outline

Outline

  • Fiscal Crisis & Entrepreneurial Politics

    • Fiscal crisis

    • Fiscal retrenchment

    • Privatized city

    • Entrepreneurial politics

  • Models of Local Governance


Background of fiscal crisis

Background of Fiscal Crisis

  • Started at 1970s

    • Long last economic crisis in 1970s

    • After the crisis and economic restructuring:

      • Deindustrialization and decentralization: to sunbelt cities, to third world

      • Advanced capitalism: flexible production system

      • Postsuburban development: suburbs (e.g. edge cities) begin to overshadow central cities; informational mode of city


Background of fiscal crisis1

Background of Fiscal Crisis

  • Scale of impact is so huge: self-propelling process in reverse


Fiscal crisis

Fiscal Crisis

  • Symptoms: started at 1970s

    • infrastructure deteriorates

    • rising crime & enforcement costs

    • increased need for specialized inner city services for elderly, unemployed, single parent families & immigrants

    • federal government passes along cost of federal programs: “revenue-sharing system”

    • simultaneous reduction in federal aid

    • bankruptcy or at the edge of bankruptcy


Sources of fiscal crisis

Sources of Fiscal Crisis

i. Costs of Growth Machine Restructuring of Urban Space

ii. Cutbacks in Federal Grants

iii. Inflationary Pay Raises

vi. Welfare Spending Driven by Racial Tension

v. Rollover of Operating Budget Deficits

Downgraded Credit Ratings

Banks Sell off City Bonds

Fiscal Crisis

Fiscal Squeeze

+

=

=

  • Root I:

    • Long standing and intensified “Fiscal Squeeze” caused by suburbanization and political fragmentation


Sources of fiscal crisis1

Sources of Fiscal Crisis

  • Root II:

    • Somehow conflict roles played by cities:

      • Service providers: equity/social wage

      • Infrastructures for private economic growth: efficiency/social capital


New urban politics

New Urban Politics?

  • Neo-Conservatism--as a response:

    • tax payer revolts: ‘failure’ of social welfare; middle and upper class; e.g. California’s Proposition 13 (1978) and Massachusetts’s Proposition 2&1/2

    • changed perception of governments: “New Federalism”, initiated by Richard Nixon; small size

    • political devolution: alliance formed

    • weakened labor union: deindustralization/decentralization


Strategy i

Strategy I

  • Fiscal retrenchment:

    • reduction in service bundle

    • increased efficiency

    • decreased payroll


Strategy ii

Strategy II

  • Privatized City:

    • private sectors to provide certain services and infrastructures: roads, bridges, sewage, drinking water, street lighting? …

    • advantages:

      • decreased costs & increased efficiency

      • risks sharing

      • new markets


Strategy ii cont

Strategy II (Cont.)

  • Privatized City:

    • problems include:

      • low balling

      • accountability/measurement

      • trading high pay jobs for low pay jobs

      • corruption

      • narrow define of public interest as low cost


Entrepreneurial politics

Entrepreneurial Politics

  • After economic restructuring, increased municipal expenditures

  • Difference:

    • stimulate more involvement of private sectors

    • through tax subsiding


Entrepreneurial politics1

Entrepreneurial Politics

  • Creating new public-private partnerships:

    • capital investment through image creation

    • open new urban spaces for redevelopment: e.g. gentrification

    • capitalize the new federal government expenditures: e.g. military, aerospace in sunbelt cities (San Diego)

    • creation of positive & entrepreneurial industrial ethos: risk taking high tech start-ups


Entrepreneurial politics cont

Entrepreneurial Politics (Cont.)

  • Creating new public-private partnerships:

    • creation of new “quality of life”or consumption districts: e.g. Disney’s Time Square; Baltimore’s Inner Harbor;

    • create a complete & marketable urban package: offices, hotels, theaters, major-league sports franchise, mall complex, festival markets


Buffalo theater historic preservation district

Buffalo Theater Historic Preservation District


Models of local governance

Models of Local Governance

  • Elitist

    • stable pyramid, general public accepted leadership

  • Neo-Elitist

    • consensus driven pyramid, general public opposed leadership

  • Pluralist

    • competition between groups:

      • multiple elite clusters

      • emerging elite clusters


Models of local governance cont

Models of Local Governance (Cont.)

  • Corporatist

    • Interests clearly represented in local government: creation of symbiotic hierarchies between government & business/labor/community

  • Hyperpluralistic

    • unstable political coalitions

    • contemporary US cities

    • political regimes


Next class

Next Class

  • Urban Planning and Policy

  • Reading: chp 14. pp 377~403


  • Login