Hunger under nutrition and food security in india
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Hunger, Under-nutrition and Food Security in India N.C. Saxena Dec 2008 MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day 􀂾 percentage of population living below poverty line

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Hunger, Under-nutrition and Food Security in India

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Hunger, Under-nutrition and Food Security in India

N.C. Saxena

Dec 2008


MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger

Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day

  • 􀂾 percentage of population living below poverty line

    Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

  • 􀂾 Prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age)

  • 􀂾 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption


How many hungry or poor in India?

  • Consumption poverty 28%

  • Income poverty (1 $ a day) 34%

  • Hungry (NSSO) 1 to 3%

  • Calorie deficient (NSSO) 70%

  • Calorie deficient (FAO) 20%

  • Body mass index (<18.5) 35%

  • Malnourished children < 5 years 43%

  • Hunger Index (IFPRI) 23%


Self-reported hunger in India (NSSO)


Household food availability (UNDP)


Cereal Consumption (kg per month)


Underlying causes of hunger in India

  • Falling per capita crop, especially food production in the last 10 years.

  • Increasing share of surplus states and large farmers in food production, resulting in artificial surplus that is exported, thus further reducing availability of foodgrains.

  • Increasing inequality, with only marginal increase in the per capita expenditure of the bottom 30%. From their meager income the poor are forced to spend more on medical care, education, transport, fuel, and light, thus reducing the share of their expenditure on food.

  • Low access of the poor to expensive foods, such as pulses, vegetables, oil, fruits, and meat products which provide essential proteins, fats, and micro-nutrients. This leads to under-development of human body and mind, affecting the ability of individuals to work productively, and resist disease.


Underlying causes (contd.)

  • Low status of women, their early marriage, low weight at pregnancy and illiteracy low weight of new born babies.

  • Poor childcare practices: not immediately starting breast-feeding after birth, no exclusively breastfeeding for the first five months, irregular and insufficient complementary feeding afterwards, and lack of quick disposal of child’s excreta.

  • Poor supply of government services, such as immunisation, access to medical care, and lack of priority to primary health care. Combined with poor food availability, unsafe drinking water and lack of sanitation lead to high under-nutrition and permanent damage to their physical and mental capabilities.

  • Major food related programmes, such as PDS and ICDS are plagued by corruption, leakages, errors in selection, procedural delays, poor allocations and little accountability. They also tend to discriminate against and exclude those who need them most, such as urban poor migrants, street and slum residents, and dispersed hamlets.


Per Capita Consumption during 2004-06 (kg/year)


Poverty

Percentage below poverty line

1973 56

  • 39

    1994 35

    1999 26?

    2004 28


1971

1983

1994

2005

Rural

247

250

241

225

Urban

53

67

75

80

Total

300

317

316

305

Urban share

17.7

21.2

23.7

26.2

Number of poor in millions


MDG Goal one – reduce malnutrition by half


24


Recommended and Actual feeding practices

  • Goal: Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth

    • Achievement: 25%

  • Goal: Exclusive breastfeeding (6 months)

    • Achievement: 46%

  • Goal: Feed breast milk or milk products, and feed a minimum number of times from a minimum number of food groups (age 6-23 months)

    • Achievement: 21%


Feeding Practices during Diarrhoea

  • Children with diarrhoea should be given more liquids to drink than usual, but only 10% of children with diarrhoea actually receive more liquids and almost 4 in 10 receive less to drink

  • Children with diarrhoea should continue to be fed, but 45% receive less food than usual or no food at all when they have diarrhoea


Reasons for high malnutrition

Early marriage of girls & status of women

New born is underweight

Poor cultural practices regarding feeding of colostrum, breast and complementary feeding

High disease load, especially malaria and diarrhoea

Bad quality of water

Poor sanitation & no medical attention

Migration

Mothers go for work leaving children at home

Ineffective government intervention

Badly designed ICDS programme

27


Strategies required for 6 m to 2+ years

  • Nutrition and Breast feeding counseling: through addl AWW or ASHA

  • Shift attention from centre to households

  • Community based crèches, and on pvt worksites

  • AWC or NREGA creches: practically non existent

  • Health care services to combat common illnesses and immunisation

  • Set up health rehabilitation centres, as in Guna

    Active involvement of community/panchayat


How much assistance is necessary to wipe-off food insecurity in India?

  • 28% people are below poverty line

  • Total number of poor people is 28 crores

  • They each need 3 kg extra cereal per month, or 36 kg per annum

  • Hence total requirement is 28x36 crore kg=10 million tonnes

    GOI distributes 40 million tonnes annually


% Households with access to PDS


TPDS - a few suggestions

  • Universal entitlement to all PTGs and homeless

  • Involve women’s SHGs, cooperatives, and panchayats

  • Give shops to those who already have shops

  • Simplify procedure

  • Door-step delivery of PDS commodities to shops

  • Replace ration cards by portable laminated cards

  • Develop computerised grievance redressal system through a toll-free number

  • Stakeholder involvement, frequent open door meetings with consumers

    Ban exports, import more

    Cover 70% people with BPL/AAY cards

    Fix APL quota according to population


Thank you


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