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Graduate Training in Imaging Sciences at Washington University. Carolyn J. Anderson and Michael J. Welch Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO.

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Graduate Training in Imaging Sciences at Washington University

Carolyn J. Anderson and Michael J. Welch

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology,

Washington University School of Medicine

St. Louis, MO


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“The challenge for the 21st century is to understand how the casts of molecular characters work together to make living cells and organisms, and how such understanding can be harnessed to improve health and well-being.

…this quest will depend heavily on molecular imaging, which shows when and where genetically or biochemically defined molecules, signals or processes appear, interact and disappear, in time and space.”

Dr. Roger Tsien, University of California, San Diego Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 2003


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Molecular Imaging – The New Paradigm

  • The characterization and measurement of biological processes in living animals, model systems and humans at the cellular and molecular level using remote imaging detectors.

  • Multiple imaging modalities (PET, SPECT, MRI, optical, ultrasound, CT) used to answer scientific questions with imaging

  • How do we train the next generation of Molecular Imaging Scientists?


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Multi- vs Inter- Disciplinary Research

  • Multi-disciplinary: a group of researchers with differing expertise contributing to a project, and then returning to doing research in their specific expertise

  • Inter-disciplinary:a research group is performing science that incorporates many aspects of science, with a focus in one area


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Current Status of Imaging Sciences Training

  • Young imaging scientists are typically trained in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Engineering, etc.

  • Transition to interdisciplinary research occurs during postdoctoral and/or early faculty years


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NIH Initiatives for Training an Interdisciplinary Workforce

  • Develop interdisciplinary curriculum

  • Undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral interdisciplinary training

  • Create interdisciplinary research teams

  • INTEGRATION of disciplines is key


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Training Programs in Imaging Sciences: Johns Hopkins University Center for Imaging Sciences

  • Faculty in BME, Electrical and computer engineering (ECE) and Mathematical Sciences

  • Combines biomedical imaging sciences with computational modeling

  • Focus on neurological disease imaging

  • Graduate tracks in Applied Math and Statistics, BME, Comp Sci and ECE


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Training Programs in Imaging Sciences: UCLA

  • UCLA Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology

    • Molecular imaging focus: molecular and cellular mechanisms of normal and diseased organ systems

    • Faculty have strong biological research interests

  • UCLA Interdepartmental Biomedical Physics Graduate Program

    • Faculty from the Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Radiation Oncology and Radiological Sciences

    • Graduate degrees in Biological Imaging, Medical Imaging, Radiation Biology and Therapeutic Medical Physics


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Imaging Sciences at WU

  • DOE Award to train graduate students in nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical sciences

    • Awarded in Fall, 2001 (3 years)

    • C. Anderson, PI

  • Curriculum for Imaging Sciences at Washington University (NIH K07)

    • awarded in September, 2004 (5 year award)

    • C. Anderson, PI

  • 21st Century Imaging Sciences: Undergraduate and Graduate Student Training (NIH T90 and R90)

    • awarded in September, 2006 (4 year award)

    • P. Stahl (Chair, Cell Biology) and C. Anderson, Co-Directors

    • T90 funds graduate education in imaging sciences

    • R90 funds undergraduate education in imaging sciences


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Imaging Sciences Pathway at WU

Offered through the Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences (DBBS); open to all science and engineering students

  • 8 graduate students were funded starting January 1, 2007

    • 4 students funded for 2 years; 4 students funded for 1 year

    • Students from DBBS, BME, ESE, Chemistry and Physics

  • 4 new students funded for 2 years starting January 1, 2008

    • Students from DBBS, BME, Mechanical Engeering and Physics

  • Undergraduate students funded through R90 mechanism

    • 16 students funded for summer undergraduate research in 2007 and 25 students funded in summer, 2008

    • UG majors included BME, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biology

  • Goal - Imaging Sciences Graduate Program – 2009?


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Imaging Sciences Pathway (2007)

Ph.D. in Biological Sciences, Physics, Chemistry or Engineering

Ph.D. in Biological Sciences Program

Ph.D. in Chemistry

Ph.D. in Physics

D.Sc. In Engineering

Pathway

Imaging Courses (2-3)

Molecular Cell Biology (through DBBS or BME)

Principles and Applications of Biological Imaging

Contrast Agents for Biological Imaging

Biological Imaging Technology

Core Courses

Recruitment

B.S. in Biology, Chemistry, Biochemistry

B.S. in ESE, Physics, BME


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Ph.D. in Imaging Sciences, DBBS (2009?)

Agent Development

Med Chem

Pharmacology

Application area

Molecular Medicine

Pharmacology

Macromol. interactions

Application area

Neuro-Imaging

MRI

Functional Imaging

Algorithms

Engineering & Physics

Imaging Modality

Algorithms

Application Area

Pathway

Core Courses (3-4)

Molecular Cell Biology (through DBBS or BME)

Principles and Applications of Biological Imaging

Contrast Agents for Biological Imaging

Biological Imaging Technology

Core Courses

Recruitment

B.S. in Biology, Chemistry, Biochemistry

B.S. in EE, Physics, BME


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Principles and Applications of Biological Imaging (PABI)

Fall semester 2007

Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Biology 5146, 3 Credits

Course Masters: Carolyn J. Anderson and Joe Culver

Teaching Assistant: Dr. Monica Shokeen

IT Specialists: James K. Kozlowski and Christopher D. Sherman

Enrollment : 17

  • To emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of imaging sciences.

  • To conduct a comprehensive survey of the array of interrelated topics that define biological imaging and related topics

Course Objective


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Principles and Applications of Biological Imaging (PABI) – Lecture topics (90 min)

  • Imaging math and instrumentation (7 lectures)

  • Contrast Agents (3 lectures – RaPh, MR and optical)

  • Tours of imaging facilities (3 lectures)

  • Imaging applications (9 lectures)

  • Student Presentations (2 lectures)


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Principles and Applications of Biological Imaging (PABI) – Challenges

  • Very diverse enrollment (biology, engineering, graduate and undergraduate)

  • Front loading course with math and instrumentation did not go well with biology students

  • One homework assignment for the first 7 lectures was overwhelming to students

    • Let students work on homework in groups, with representation from various types of students in each group


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Principles and Applications of Biological Imaging (PABI) – changes for Fall, 2008

  • Make the course modular based by imaging modality, covering instrumentation, contrast agents and applications for nuclear medicine, MRI and optical imaging

  • Last module covers topics in neuroimaging

  • Assign homework after each module (no more than 3-4 lectures for each homework assignment)


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Contrast Agents for Biological Imaging (CABI)

Spring Semester 2008

Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences and Department of Chemistry

Biology/Chemistry 5147, 3 Credits

Course Master: Carolyn J. Anderson

Teaching Assistant: Monica Shokeen

IT Specialists: James K. Kozlowski and Christopher D. Sherman

Enrollment : 8

To teach and discuss the chemistry and biology of developing contrast agents for nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance and optical imaging

Course Objective


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Contrast Agents for Biological Imaging (CABI) – lecture topics (90 min)

  • Radiopharmaceuticals for PET and SPECT (7 lectures)

  • MRI contrast agents (3 lectures)

  • Optical Imaging (7 lectures)

  • Molecular targeted agents (any modality) (4 lectures)

  • Imaging facility tours (2 lectures)

  • Student presentations (4 lectures)


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Biological Imaging Techology (BIT)

Spring, 2008

Electrical and Systems Engineering

ESE 483/583 BME 494, 3 Credits

Course Master: Joe Culver and Jason Trobaugh

Enrollment : 14

To teach and discuss the math and instrumentation design of biological imaging instrumentation

Course Objective


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Summary of New Courses and Enrollment


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Distance Learning

WebCT, a web-based resource that can be accessed through internet browser is used for archiving and dispensing information.

Currently, a new web-based resource, Moodle, is being used.

Use of tablet PC makes remote instruction user friendly

Can use this as a “virtual chalk board” for adding notes to slides or giving “chalk lectures”

Students from outside universities have enrolled in the ISP

courses with tuition waved by the Dean of Arts and Sciences


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Imaging Sciences Pathway RetreatsApril, 2006 and April, 2008

  • Retreats held at off-campus hotel in the St. Louis metropolitan area

  • This year’s retreat attracted over 125 participants, and included display of 40 imaging sciences related posters, and talks from industry experts and ISP pathway graduates


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Challenges of Interdisciplinary Training

  • Lack of undergraduates with interdisciplinary training

  • Teaching interdisciplinary courses to students from diverse academic backgrounds

    • Survey courses offered in early years of grad training

    • In-depth courses are for specific aspects of imaging

  • Encouraging interactions between faculty members of different disciplines

    • Retreats and seminars

  • Administration and educational cultural differences must be resolved


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Addressing Challenges

  • Making undergraduate education in Imaging Sciences a priority

  • Encourage cross-department and school interaction

    • Jointly sponsored seminars and retreats

    • Involve faculty from different schools in teaching and curriculum

    • Require that students have two mentors from two different disciplines (one primary and one secondary)


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What will be Achieved by Interdisciplinary Training Programs such as Imaging Sciences?

  • Integration of disciplines (physical and biological sciences with math and engineering)

  • A new generation of interdisciplinary scientists with both didactic and practical training

  • Facilitate communication among scientists across disciplines

  • Accelerated scientific discoveries


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Where do we go from here?

  • Create a foundation for interdisciplinary pathways and programs

  • Break down administrative, financial and academic barriers to create a new educational paradigms

    • Resolve disparities in stipends, payment of tuition, and financial models between programs

  • Create and sustain an imaging sciences community at WU and other universities


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Acknowledgements

Washington University:

Phil Stahl, Ph.D. (Cell Biology)

Dee Owyoung (administrative)

60 mentors in the ISP

Matching Funds for Graduate and Undergraduate Slots

Schools of Medicine, Arts and Sciences, and Engineering and Applied Sciences

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology

NIH/NCI

K07 GM072931 (C. Anderson, PI)

T90 DA022781 (P. Stahl and C. Anderson, co-PIs)

R90 DA023416 (P. Stahl and C. Anderson, co-PIs)


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