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Garden CSI: Part II. Jim Jacobi. Extension Plant Pathologist Alabama Cooperative Ext. System. Plant Problem Diagnosis A process of elimination. Identify the type of plant Start with a list of possibilities based on plant species and time of year

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Garden csi part ii l.jpg

Garden CSI:Part II

Jim Jacobi.

Extension Plant Pathologist

Alabama Cooperative Ext. System


Plant problem diagnosis a process of elimination l.jpg
Plant Problem DiagnosisA process of elimination

  • Identify the type of plant

  • Start with a list of possibilities based on plant species and time of year

    • Red Maple – Phyllosticta leaf spot, gloomy scale

    • Flowering Dogwood – Powdery mildew, spot anthracnose, dogwood borer

  • Look for clues and patterns (symptoms and signs)

  • Rule out biotic and abioticproblems, narrow the list of possibilities

  • Repeat steps 3 and 4, if needed

  • Consult expert or send sample to a diagnostic lab


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    Diagnostic

    Tools

    T. Stebbins. Univ. of TN


    Symptoms visible evidence of a change in appearance of the plant l.jpg
    Symptoms - visible evidence of a change in appearance of the plant


    Signs visible or physical presence of a pathogen or pest l.jpg
    Signs - Visible or physical presence of a pathogen or pest


    Symptoms l.jpg
    Symptoms

    • Identify and classify symptoms

      • Underdevelopment of plant tissues - stunting

      • Overdevelopment of plant tissues - galls

      • Necrosis or death – leaf spots, dieback

    • Identify plant parts affected


    Signs and symptoms l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Types of arthropod feeding damage

    • Stippling

    • Chlorosis

    • Sooty Mold

    • Leafmining

    • Leaf Defoliaters

    • Spider Mites

    • Borers

    • Root Damage

    • Learn to recognize the different types of feeding damage

    4

    3

    Lacy L. Hyche, Auburn University, Bugwood.org


    Signs and symptoms8 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    • Look for signs of insect frass or insect fecal material

    • Can be an early warning sign of defoliators and other types on insects

    • Look for frass dropping on sidewalks, leaves, bark and around the base of trees.

    Lesser canna leafroller larvae and frass


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    Signs and Symptoms

    Frass tubes from granulate ambrosia beetle


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    Signs and Symptoms

    Over-development of tissues

    • Some insect and mite species can induce gall formation on a variety of host plant structures.

    • Gall-makers are generally host plant specific.

    Eyespot Gall

    A mite gall,

    Aculops laevigata on willow

    Photo: William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, www.forestryimages.org

    Gall Mite Damage

    Photo: Petr Kapitola, Forestry and Game Management Research Institute - Czechia, www.forestryimages.org


    Signs and symptoms11 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Over-development of tissues

    • How do you know if an insect has caused this damage?

    • Closely examine plant deformation.

    • Cut open gall.

    • Exit holes, frass, empty larval chambers, etc.

    • Rear insects to adult stage.

    cynipid gall wasps

    Photo: Ronald F. Billings, Texas Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org

    oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Photo: Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org


    Signs and symptoms12 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Over-development of tissues

    • Bacterial and fungal galls may resemble insect galls.

    • Crown gall bacterium causes galls on roots, crowns and stems.

    • Fungi can also form large galls that superficially resemble crown gall

    Crown gall on eastern red cedar

    Photo: Edward L. Barnard, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, www.ipmimages.org


    Signs and symptoms13 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Over-development of tissues

    • Phomopsis gall on oak

    • In this case, there are no exit holes, frass, empty larval chambers, etc.


    Signs and symptoms14 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Tissue Necrosis

    • Fungal leaf spots

    • Usually round, not vein-limited

    • Elongated on narrow leaves or stems

    • May have alternating zones of light and dark tissue

    • Sporulation, mycelia, or small dot-like fruiting bodies may be evident

    Leaf spot of Indian hawthorn. R. K. Jones


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    Signs and Symptoms

    Fungal fruiting bodies

    Leaf spot on red maple cause by the fungus

    Phyllosticta


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    Signs and Symptoms

    Tissue Necrosis

    Bacterial leaf spots

    • Often dark and water-soaked

    • Often vein-limited, giving angular shape

    • Bacterial “ooze” or ‘flow’ observed under microscope

    Bacterial leaf spot of hibiscus. A. R. Chase

    Bacterial

    ooze


    Example english ivy l.jpg
    Example - English Ivy

    • Both bacterial and fungal leaf spots occur on English ivy.

    • Use signs and symptoms to determine the cause of the spots

    R. K. Jones/NCSU


    Example english ivy18 l.jpg
    Example - English Ivy

    • Fungal Leaf Spot (Anthracnose)

    • Large, irregularly shaped, tan to brown spots

    • Have numerous, tiny, dark-brown dots (fruiting bodies) on lower surface of leaf

    Moorman PSU

    Moorman PSU


    Example english ivy19 l.jpg
    Example - English Ivy

    • Bacterial Leaf Spot

    • Circular, dark-brown to black spots, often with yellow halo

    • Viewed on underside of leaf spots may appear greasy

    • No fruiting structures in spots

    Moorman Penn State Univ.

    A. S. Windham – Univ. Tenn.


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    Signs and Symptoms

    Necrosis of tissue

    Dieback

    • Several possible cause for damage

    • Feeding damage from several types of insects can lead to limb dieback.

    • Bacterial and Fungal Cankers

    • Root problems

    • Death of the host may result.

    Botryosphaeria dieback on rhododendron

    M. Daughtrey/APS Press


    Signs and symptoms21 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Azalea lace bug damage

    Types of Insect Feeding Damage

     Insects with piercing- sucking mouthparts cause stippling and/or chlorosis on the host.

     Example groups: aphids, true bugs, hoppers, scale insects, whiteflies, etc.

    Lacebug Damage on Azalea


    Signs and symptoms22 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Types of Insect Feeding Damage

    • Presence of Sooty Mold may suggest an infestation of honeydew producing insects such as scales, mealybugs, whiteflies, or aphids.

    • Presence of ants may also be an indicator of these insects!

    • Look up. Insect problem maybe in nearby trees. Asian Woolly Hackberry Aphid

    Sooty mold on crape myrtle


    Signs and symptoms23 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    oak skeletonizer

    Types of Insect Feeding Damage

    Leaf Defoliaters

    • Damage caused to a plant by insect feeding.

    • “Skeletonizing” results when the veins or the “skeleton” of the leaf is left behind.

    Top Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org

    maple trumpet skeletonizer

    Bottom Photo: E. Bradford Walker, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, www.forestryimages.org


    Signs and symptoms24 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    columbine leafminer

    Types of Insect Feeding Damage

    Leafmining

    • Insects that produce characteristic “mines” in leaves by feeding.

    • Formed by various insects including flies, wasps, moths, and beetles.

    • Some may be confused with leaf spot diseases

    Top Photo: Lisa Ames, UGA, www.forestryimages.org

    Solitary oak leafminer

    James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

    Aspen blotchminer


    Signs and symptoms25 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Types of Arthropod Feeding Damage

    Spider Mites

    • Leaf damage includes flecking, bronzing, and/or scorching of leaves.

    • Use hand-lens to see mites

    • Tap leaves on white paper

    • Several natural enemies. Most problematic in heavy insecticide use areas.

    Spider mite damage on hydrangea

    Photo: Mississippi State University Archives, Mississippi State University, www.forestryimages.org

    twospotted spider mite


    Signs and symptoms26 l.jpg
    Signs and Symptoms

    Roots

    • Don’t forget to look for potential insect and disease damage on roots!

    Aspen root girdler

    Top Photo: Ostry, Mike. USDA Forest Service. http://www.forestryimages.org/

    Scarab beetle larval feeding damage on root system of pine

    Bottom Photo: Robert L. Anderson, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org



    Case 1 leaf spots on butterfly bush buddleia x weyeriana28 l.jpg
    Case #1 – Leaf spots on Butterfly Bush (Buddleia x weyeriana)

    • Fungal sporulation on underside of leaf opposite chlorotic spots

    • Downy mildew

    Downy Mildew

    S. Jeffers/Clemson




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    Southern Purple Mint Moth on Rosemary

    Southern purple mint moth larva

    Southern purple mint moth adult



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    Case #3 – Leaf spots on Brunnera ‘Jack Frost’

    • No fungal fruiting bodies or sporulation

    • No bacterial streaming or ‘ooze’

    • Foliar nematode emerging from leaf tissue on microscope slide

    T. Stebbins. Univ. of TN


    Case 4 wilt of oakleaf hydrangea l.jpg
    Case #4 – Wilt of Oakleaf Hydrangea


    Case 4 wilt of oakleaf hydrangea35 l.jpg
    Case #4 – Wilt of Oakleaf Hydrangea

    • Adequate soil moisture

    • Presence of white fungal mycelium under bark

    • Armillaria root rot



    Case 5 tip dieback of southern magnolia37 l.jpg
    Case # 5 – Tip Dieback of Southern Magnolia

    • Branch dieback of pencil sized branch tips

    • Small entrance holes (< 1mm) on bottom side of the limbs

    • Black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus) within stems



    Slide39 l.jpg

    Some of the slides were adapted from NPDN slidesets developed by the following authors

    • Amanda C. Hodges, University of Florida

    • Amanda M. Ellis, University of Florida

    • Meg Williamson, Clemson University

    • Melissa Riley, Clemson University

    • Otis Maloy, Washington State University


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