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Excel Basics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Excel Basics Fundamentals, Formula Techniques, and Tricks of the Trade Fundamentals The basics of spreadsheet models Fundamentals 1] Never enter the same information more than once. =B4 Fundamentals

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Excel basics l.jpg

Excel Basics


Formula Techniques, and

Tricks of the Trade

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The basics of spreadsheet models

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1] Never enter the same information more than once.


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2] Code inputs blue. When a blue input variable is changed ALL DEPENDENT values change accordingly.


=B4 ?

=E4 ?

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3] Name constants.


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Go to B13

Assign names in the name box (under the toolbar). This replaces the name B13 with PRI

Use [Insert] [Names…] [Define] to see and manage names used in the spreadsheet

In 2007 use [Formulas] [NameManager]

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3] Name constants.






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3] Name constants and arrays

  • Highlight

  • Enter the name

  • Shift+Ctrl+Enter


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4] Format for clarity and ease of use.


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5] Always line up repetitive formulas so they can be dragged across rows and down columns.

*Use [F4] to toggle the lock code

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6] Train yourself to use shortcuts

  • Customize your toolbar

  • Alt+ codes

    • TRY Alt + I N D

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In-Session Exercise

Bond Calculator

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Nov 8 is a date

Ctrl+Shift+1 and it changes to 39,758.00

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In B13

Ctrl+Shift+1 and it changes to 98.75

Ctrl+Shift+2 and it changes to 6:00PM

(.75 through the day)

Ctrl+Shift+3 and it changes to 7-Apr-00(Apr 7, 1900)

Ctrl+Shift+4 and it changes to $98.75

Ctrl+Shift+5 and it changes to 9875%

Ctrl+Shift+6 and it changes to 9.88E+01

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Bond Calculator

  • Compute Base Price

  • Note that when you use = and point to the Principal Excel uses the Name Principal rather than B3

  • when you use = and point to Price Excel uses the Name PRI rather than B13

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Using Excel Functions

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  • There are hundreds of built-in functions

  • Find them by clicking on fx

  • Most of the ones we use are under Financial

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Use names

See each step

Description of function

Use $A$7 which will default to 0

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Bond Calculator

Note that everything is calculatedand coded black

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  • On any function click on the [fx] to open the applet.

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Data Validation

Drop Down Lists

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Data Validation


Set to accept inputs from B19:B21only

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Drop Down Lists in Excel

  • From B7 use Data/ Validation

    • Choose List and specify $B$19:$B$21




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Drop Down Lists

The drop down forces the user to choose from a list of inputs

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Finding specific information

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Basis for COUP functions

  • In A7=VLOOKUP(B7,Codes,2,FALSE)

Exact match only

Find the value in B7 in the 1st column of…

The array we named Codes

Get the corresponding value in column 2


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  • Choose a different Bond type and watch the code change.

  • vLookup

    • Looks up in the first column of an array and matches the row

  • hLookup

    • Looks up in the first row of an array and matches the column

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Excel conditions

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=IF(Condition, True, False)

=IF(A7=1,"Treasury","Not a Treasury")


"matures on the 15th",

"doesn't mature on the 15th")

Day part of SDT

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=IF(Condition, True, False)




"Treasuries mature on the 15th"),


You can embed up to 7 if statements in one cell

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Sensitivity Analysis

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Data Tables

  • Change one input in a model and calculate what various outputs would be

  • Change two inputs in a model and calculate what one output would be

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Cell where the Nominal Yield is calculated

Change the price quote (from 60 to 135)


Cell where income Yield is calculated


Cell where YTM is calculated

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  • Highlight the table area

    • The first column is the list of prices

    • The top row is the list of outputs

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2.Use [Data][Table]

3.Indicate that the first column in the area is to replace cell B13


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Test the table array by changing the input n and comparing the results with the table

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When a picture is worth a thousand words

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  • What are you trying to communicate?

  • How do you best communicate it?

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Combined Chart


Price of a quarter of wheat

Wage of a good mechanic

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Florence Nightingale

Deaths from preventable disease

Deaths from wounds

Deaths from all other causes

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  • Chart as an xy scatter chart

  • exchange the x and y axes

    • Yield shouldbe the x axis

    • Price shouldbe the y axis

    • Use right click/source data

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Chart Area

The Chart Area is the frame in which the chart is held. Set the chart font to the same as the spreadsheet and de-click autoscale

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Plot Area

The Plot Area is the chart space. Highlight the grey and delete; highlight the gridlines and delete or reformat to make them less obnoxious.Expand the Plot Area to enlarge the graph within the frame

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Edit Chart Options to add Titles

Format Axes

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Format Data Series

Format Data point to add label

Color nominal yield white to hide it

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Format Data Series

Change to Income Alt+Enter Yield

The label Changes as well

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Conditional Formatting

Font color, highlights, etc

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Prices to increment by 10

Format/ Conditional Formatting

Set negative yields to red

Now set the Coupon to 4%

Conditional Formatting

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Tricks of the Trade

One last trick