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Cold Stress. Identifying and Responding to Cold Exposure Hazards. COLD STRESS FACTORS. Temperature of the air surrounding the body Body temperature Air movement around the body Body movement Length of exposure. COLD ENVIRONMENT. Normal body temperature 98.6º F

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Cold Stress

Identifying and Responding to Cold Exposure Hazards


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COLD STRESS FACTORS

  • Temperature of the air surrounding the body

  • Body temperature

  • Air movement around the body

  • Body movement

  • Length of exposure


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COLD ENVIRONMENT

  • Normal body temperature 98.6º F

  • Body temperature drops below 86º, control system becomes ineffective

  • Below 59º, body begins to experience impairment of many functions

  • Most hypothermia results when ambient temperature is between 30º and 40º F


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COLD ENVIRONMENT

  • Increased heat loss to the environment

  • Muscle hypertonus, resulting in shivering, is body’s attempt to maintain body temperature


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HYPOTHERMIA

  • Prolonged exposure to cold causes the body to lose energy faster than it is produced

  • Body temperature drops to lower than normal

  • Can happen when temperatures are above freezing


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CONDITIONS AFFECTING HYPOTHERMIA

  • Aging, allergies, poor circulation, and illness

  • Self-imposed conditions, such as drinking, smoking, and taking sedatives also increase risks

  • Wet clothing, windy conditions, and poor physical condition


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HYPOTHERMIASYMPTOMS

  • Numbness, stiffness, drowsiness, poor coordination

  • Slow or irregular breathing and heart rate

  • Slurred speech

  • Cool skin, and puffiness in the face are common


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HYPOTHERMIA SYMPTOMS

  • May seem apathetic about getting out of cold

  • Shivering and teeth chattering is a sure sign that body temperature is too low

  • Victim first feels cold then may feel mild pain in extremities


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HYPOTHERMIA SYMPTOMS

  • Victim may seem confused and disoriented with memory lapses

  • Worst-case can be death


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SAFETY PROCEDURES

  • Get victim to where it is warm

  • Get them out of wet, frozen, or tight clothing

  • Keep victim dry

  • Get them into loose warm clothes or blankets

  • Give warm (room temperature) liquids


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SAFETY PROCEDURES

  • Do not give alcohol or substances containing caffeine

  • Warm center of body first

  • If necessary, seek medical assistance and give CPR


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FROSTBITE

  • Most serious, and second most common, cold exposure hazard

  • Nose, ears, cheeks, fingers, and toes most often affected

  • Affected area doesn’t get enough heat and freezes


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FROSTBITE

  • Freezing causes blood vessel constriction

  • Results in lack of oxygen, excess fluid buildup, blistering, and tissue death

  • May not be aware anything bad is happening


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FROSTBITE

  • Recognized by distinct pallor of the exposed skin

  • Skin goes from white or grayish yellow, to reddish violet, to black

  • Usual feeling of being really cold, then numb

  • May get a tingling or aching feeling or brief pain


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FROSTBITE

  • Damage to skin sometimes causes blisters

  • Constricted blood vessels impair blood flow

  • Can cause permanent tissue damage


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FROSTBITE

  • Victim can become unconscious

  • Death may result from heart failure

  • If necessary, seek medical assistance and give CPR


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CARE OF FROSTBITE

  • Don’t rub the affected part

  • Don’t use hot baths, or heat producing devices

  • Don’t break blisters


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CARE OF FROSTBITE

  • Warm the frozen part with clothing, blankets, or with room temperature water

  • Once warm, exercise the affected parts

  • Exception: Do not walk on frostbitten feet


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DRIVING EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

  • Serviceable clothing (sweatshirt, jeans, coveralls, coat)

  • Distilled water and anti-freeze

  • Easily stored, nonperishable food (chips, candy bars, cookies, some canned foods, etc.)


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DRIVING EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

  • Matches, in a waterproof container

  • Large candles

  • Tool kit (pliers, screwdrivers, crescent wrench, jumper cables, duct tape, electrician’s tape, etc.)


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DRIVING EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

  • A couple quarts of motor oil and multipurpose lubricant, such as WD 40

  • Ice scraper, sand or kitty litter, traction mat, shovel


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DRIVING EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

  • Road atlas

  • Reflective triangles or flares

  • Several blankets or comforters


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BE PREPARED FOR ADRIVING EMERGENCY

  • Keep a healthy respect for your safety in cold weather !! AND

  • A cellular phone!!


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PROTECTION

  • Prevention is the best way to deal with cold stress

  • Don’t drink alcohol, bathe, smoke, or take drugs before being exposed to cold

  • Dress in loose layers of dry clothing


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PROTECTION

  • Cover hands, feet, face, and head

  • Keep moving

  • Take regular breaks in warm places


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