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Cold Stress. Identifying and Responding to Cold Exposure Hazards. COLD STRESS FACTORS. Temperature of the air surrounding the body Body temperature Air movement around the body Body movement Length of exposure. COLD ENVIRONMENT. Normal body temperature 98.6º F

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cold stress

Cold Stress

Identifying and Responding to Cold Exposure Hazards

cold stress factors
COLD STRESS FACTORS
  • Temperature of the air surrounding the body
  • Body temperature
  • Air movement around the body
  • Body movement
  • Length of exposure
cold environment
COLD ENVIRONMENT
  • Normal body temperature 98.6º F
  • Body temperature drops below 86º, control system becomes ineffective
  • Below 59º, body begins to experience impairment of many functions
  • Most hypothermia results when ambient temperature is between 30º and 40º F
cold environment4
COLD ENVIRONMENT
  • Increased heat loss to the environment
  • Muscle hypertonus, resulting in shivering, is body’s attempt to maintain body temperature
hypothermia
HYPOTHERMIA
  • Prolonged exposure to cold causes the body to lose energy faster than it is produced
  • Body temperature drops to lower than normal
  • Can happen when temperatures are above freezing
conditions affecting hypothermia
CONDITIONS AFFECTING HYPOTHERMIA
  • Aging, allergies, poor circulation, and illness
  • Self-imposed conditions, such as drinking, smoking, and taking sedatives also increase risks
  • Wet clothing, windy conditions, and poor physical condition
hypothermia symptoms
HYPOTHERMIASYMPTOMS
  • Numbness, stiffness, drowsiness, poor coordination
  • Slow or irregular breathing and heart rate
  • Slurred speech
  • Cool skin, and puffiness in the face are common
hypothermia symptoms8
HYPOTHERMIA SYMPTOMS
  • May seem apathetic about getting out of cold
  • Shivering and teeth chattering is a sure sign that body temperature is too low
  • Victim first feels cold then may feel mild pain in extremities
hypothermia symptoms9
HYPOTHERMIA SYMPTOMS
  • Victim may seem confused and disoriented with memory lapses
  • Worst-case can be death
safety procedures
SAFETY PROCEDURES
  • Get victim to where it is warm
  • Get them out of wet, frozen, or tight clothing
  • Keep victim dry
  • Get them into loose warm clothes or blankets
  • Give warm (room temperature) liquids
safety procedures11
SAFETY PROCEDURES
  • Do not give alcohol or substances containing caffeine
  • Warm center of body first
  • If necessary, seek medical assistance and give CPR
frostbite
FROSTBITE
  • Most serious, and second most common, cold exposure hazard
  • Nose, ears, cheeks, fingers, and toes most often affected
  • Affected area doesn’t get enough heat and freezes
frostbite13
FROSTBITE
  • Freezing causes blood vessel constriction
  • Results in lack of oxygen, excess fluid buildup, blistering, and tissue death
  • May not be aware anything bad is happening
frostbite14
FROSTBITE
  • Recognized by distinct pallor of the exposed skin
  • Skin goes from white or grayish yellow, to reddish violet, to black
  • Usual feeling of being really cold, then numb
  • May get a tingling or aching feeling or brief pain
frostbite15
FROSTBITE
  • Damage to skin sometimes causes blisters
  • Constricted blood vessels impair blood flow
  • Can cause permanent tissue damage
frostbite16
FROSTBITE
  • Victim can become unconscious
  • Death may result from heart failure
  • If necessary, seek medical assistance and give CPR
care of frostbite
CARE OF FROSTBITE
  • Don’t rub the affected part
  • Don’t use hot baths, or heat producing devices
  • Don’t break blisters
care of frostbite18
CARE OF FROSTBITE
  • Warm the frozen part with clothing, blankets, or with room temperature water
  • Once warm, exercise the affected parts
  • Exception: Do not walk on frostbitten feet
driving emergency preparedness
DRIVING EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
  • Serviceable clothing (sweatshirt, jeans, coveralls, coat)
  • Distilled water and anti-freeze
  • Easily stored, nonperishable food (chips, candy bars, cookies, some canned foods, etc.)
driving emergency preparedness20
DRIVING EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
  • Matches, in a waterproof container
  • Large candles
  • Tool kit (pliers, screwdrivers, crescent wrench, jumper cables, duct tape, electrician’s tape, etc.)
slide21

DRIVING EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

  • A couple quarts of motor oil and multipurpose lubricant, such as WD 40
  • Ice scraper, sand or kitty litter, traction mat, shovel
driving emergency preparedness22
DRIVING EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
  • Road atlas
  • Reflective triangles or flares
  • Several blankets or comforters
be prepared for a driving emergency
BE PREPARED FOR ADRIVING EMERGENCY
  • Keep a healthy respect for your safety in cold weather !! AND
  • A cellular phone!!
protection
PROTECTION
  • Prevention is the best way to deal with cold stress
  • Don’t drink alcohol, bathe, smoke, or take drugs before being exposed to cold
  • Dress in loose layers of dry clothing
protection25
PROTECTION
  • Cover hands, feet, face, and head
  • Keep moving
  • Take regular breaks in warm places
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