Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders . What is Normal?. Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders Normality takes into account 3 things: Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of discomfort, unhappiness, or emotional distress
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Normality takes into account 3 things:
FIGURE 12.1 The number of people displaying a personal characteristic may help define what is statistically abnormal.
DSM – IV – TR (Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
Mental Disorders v. Insanity
Figure 12.4 (ASPD)
FIGURE 12.4 (left) “Glove” anesthesia is a conversion reaction involving loss of feeling in areas of the hand that would be covered by a glove (a). If the anesthesia were physically caused, it would follow the pattern shown in (b). (right) To test for organic paralysis of the arm, an examiner can suddenly extend the arm, stretching the muscles. A conversion reaction is indicated if the arm pulls back involuntarily.
Figure 12.7 (ASPD)
FIGURE 12.7 Lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is associated with how closely a person is genetically related to a schizophrenic person. A shared environment also increases the risk.
Figure 12.8 (ASPD)
FIGURE 12.8 Dopamine normally crosses the synapse between two neurons, activating the second cell. Antipsychotic drugs bind to the same receptor sites as dopamine does, blocking its action. In people suffering from schizophrenia, a reduction in dopamine activity can quiet a person’s agitation and psychotic symptoms.
Figure 12.12 (ASPD)
FIGURE 12.12 Seasonal affective disorder appears to be related to reduced exposure to daylight during the winter. SAD affects 1 to 2 percent of Florida’s population, about 6 percent of the people living in Maryland and New York City, and nearly 10 percent of the residents of New Hampshire and Alaska
Figure 12.14 (ASPD)
FIGURE 12.14 Adolescent suicide rates vary for different racial and ethnic groups. Higher rates occur among whites than among non-whites. White male adolescents run the highest risk of suicide. Considering gender alone, it is apparent that more male than female adolescents commit suicide. This is the same as the pattern observed for adults.
Figure 12.15 (ASPD)
FIGURE 12.15 Suicidal behavior usually progresses from suicidal thoughts, to threats, to attempts. A person is unlikely to make an attempt without first making threats. Thus, suicide threats should be taken seriously