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BUREAUCRACY. RED TAPE VS. IDEAL TYPE. BUREAUCRACY. Weber Focused on the trend of rationalization 1970’s Concerned with the operation and expansion of large-scale enterprises Public and private sectors of modern societies. BUREAUCRACY. Weber

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Bureaucracy

BUREAUCRACY

RED TAPE

VS.

IDEAL TYPE


Bureaucracy1

BUREAUCRACY

Weber

Focused on the trend of rationalization 1970’s

Concerned with the operation and expansion of large-scale enterprises

Public and private sectors of modern societies


Bureaucracy2

BUREAUCRACY

Weber

Bureaucratic coordination of human action is the distinctive mark of modern social structures

Developed the characteristics of an ideal-type bureaucracy

Goal-oriented organizations designed according to rational principles in order to efficiently attain their goals


Bureaucracy3

BUREAUCRACY

Weber

Ideal-type bureaucracy

Hierarchy of authority 

Impersonality 

Written rules of conduct 

Promotion based on achievement 

Specialized division of labor 

Efficiency 


Bureaucracy4

BUREAUCRACY

Hierarchy of authority 

Offices are ranked in a hierarchical order

Information flowing up the chain of command

Directives flowing down


Bureaucracy5

BUREAUCRACY

Hierarchy of authority 

Supervision of the lower offices by the higher ones

Offers the governed the possibility of appealing the decision of a lower office to its higher authority, in a definitely regulated manner.


Bureaucracy6

BUREAUCRACY

Impersonality 

Operations of the organizations are characterized by impersonal rules  

Explicitly state duties, responsibilities, standardized procedures and conduct of office holders

Written rules of conduct

Public monies and equipment are divorced from the private property of the official


Bureaucracy7

BUREAUCRACY

Promotion based on achievement - Appointments to these offices are made according to specialized qualifications rather than ascribed criteria

Specialized division of labor - Offices are highly specialized

Efficiency - All of these ideal characteristics have one goal, to promote the efficient attainment of the organization's goals


Bureaucracy8

BUREAUCRACY

Described bureaucracy as an "ideal type" in order to more accurately describe their growth in power and scope in the modern world

The bureaucratic coordination of the action of large numbers of people has become the dominant structural feature of modern societies


Bureaucracy9

BUREAUCRACY

BUREAUCRACY

Elwell, Frank, 1996, The Sociology of Max Weber, Retrieved August 4, 2007, http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Weber/Whome.htm


Organizational politics

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Informal approachesto gaining power through means other than merit or luck.

Meaning gradually shifting toward a more positive view.

Advocating for your interests in a way that meets your and your company’s interests.

Political skill is an interpersonal style that combines social awareness with ability to communicate well.


Organizational politics1

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

By definition, politics is used to acquire power.

Practicing politics increases your options for effective results.


Organizational politics2

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Factors that contribute to political behavior

Organizational Pyramid – each successive layer has less power.

Subjective performance standards – fosters political behavior

Environmental turbulence – uncertainty breeds political behavior

Emotional insecurity – insecurity breeds political behavior


Organizational politics3

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Machiavellian tendencies – some like to manipulate others for personal advantage.

The Prince – amoral, manipulating tyrant who wanted to restore Florence to power.

Tendencies measured in the Organizational Politics Questionnaire


Organizational politics4

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Sampling of ethical political behaviors

Strategies to gain power

Strategies to build relationships

Strategies aimed to avoid political blunders

Political skill as a constructive force.

Interpersonal style manifests itself in being socially astute and engaging in behaviors that lead to feelings of confidence, trust, and sincerity.


Organizational politics5

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Strategies to gain power

Develop power contacts – becoming more social

Control vital information – knowledge of whom to contact

Stay informed – befriend the president’s assistant

Control lines of communication - befriend the president’s assistant


Organizational politics6

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Strategies to gain power

Bring in outside experts – consultant reinforces

Make a quick showing – display quick, dramatic results

Everyone expects to be paid back –

Be the first to accept reasonable changes -


Organizational politics7

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Strategies to gain power

“…as a career building tool, the slow and steady (and subtle) amassing of power is the surest road to success.” Tom Peters


Organizational politics8

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Strategies to build relationships

Display loyalty – tenure. Works best in traditional organization

Manage your impression – speak well, present ideas coherently

Ask satisfied customers to contact your boss – purer motivation

Be courteous, pleasant, and positive – first to be hired, last to be fired.


Organizational politics9

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Strategies to build relationships

Ask advice - transmit message of trust

Send thank-yous – “The powerof a thank you (note or otherwise) is hard - make that impossible – to beat.” Tom Peters

Flatter others sensibly – tell another that you are impressed by something he/she has accomplished.


Organizational politics10

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Strategies aimed to avoid political blunders

Criticizing the boss in a public forum

Bypassing the boss

Declining an offer from top management

Putting your foot in your mouth – don’t be needlessly tactless

Not conforming to the company dress code -


Organizational politics11

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Unethical Tactics

Any tactic in the extreme can be unethical

Devious tactics ultimately lower credibility

Backstabbing –

Embrace or demolish – remove the wounded

Setting a person up for failure –

Divide and rule –

Turf wars – information, relationships, authority


Organizational politics12

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Unethical Tactics

Creating then resolving a false catastrophe


Organizational politics13

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Study of 1,370 employees

4 organizations

Perceptions of political behavior correlated with:

Less organizational commitment

Stronger turnover intention


Organizational politics14

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

Controlling dysfunctional politics

Avoid favoritism

Set good example at top

Goal congruence

Hire people with integrity


Relationships with superior

RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUPERIOR

Superiors and subordinates with good relationships have less conflict.

Two way street

Subordinate’s and Superior’s success are interdependent


Relationships with superior1

RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUPERIOR

Understand superior’s world

Goals and objectives

Complement weaknesses

Orient new superior

Keep informed about critical issues


Relationships with superior2

RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUPERIOR

Adapt to superior’s style

Subordinates responsibility to adapt

Clarify role expectations

Honesty and integrity


Relationships with peers

RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEERS

Recognize common interests and goals –

Referent power – participate in social activities

Understand Peer’s tasks, problems, and rewards –

Lend a hand. Give a compliment

Practice a Theory Y Attitude


Delegation

DELEGATION

Why it is important

Frees time for other activities

Develops followers

Strengthens the organization


Delegation1

DELEGATION

Why it is avoided

Takes too much time

Risky

Job will not be done as well (perfectionism)

Dual accountability

Task is desirable

Others are already too busy


Delegation2

DELEGATION

Principles of Effective Delegation

Decide what to delegate

Decide whom to delegate to

Make assignment clear and specific

Assign objective not procedure

Allow autonomy but monitor performance

Give credit, not blame


Delegation3

DELEGATION

Principles of Effective Delegation

Decide what to delegate

ID present activities

Estimate time spent (log)

Do activities justify time?

Delegate/Eliminate


Leadership values

LEADERSHIP & VALUES

Managers do things right

Leaders do the right things

What are the right things?

Moral dimension of leadership

Leaders who do not behave ethically do not demonstrate true leadership. Burns


Trust

TRUST

Four qualities of leadership that engender trust:

Vision pull people together thru shared beliefs & common sense of purpose

Empathy – understand world as we see and experience it

Consistency – evolutionary change based on new evidence

Integrity – commitment to higher principles


Fundamental assumptions

FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS

McGregor

Two views of human nature

Theory X – pessimistic view of others

People are lazy and unmotivated slackers

Theory Y – optimistic view of others

People are industrious and motivated to do well


Fundamental assumptions1

FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS

McGregor

Theory X – Manager’s job is to neutralize workers’ laziness and irresponsibility

Rely on coercive, external control methods

Pay, discipline, punishments, & threats


Fundamental assumptions2

FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS

McGregor

Theory Y – Manager’s job is to facilitate and trust workers

Hall & Donnell (1979)

5 studies involving >1200 mgrs.

Mgrs who had Theory X attitudes tended to be lower achieving


Values

VALUES

Constructs representing generalized behaviors or states of affairs that are considered by the individual to be important.

Rokeach

A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode or end-state of existence.


Values1

VALUES

Rokeach

We work toward what we value. Our values guide our behavior.

Terminal Values – desired end states or goals that we wish to ultimately achieve

Instrumental Values – modes of behavior by which we achieve desired ends

.


Values2

VALUES

Massey

Value Programming – each person’s values reflect the contributions of diverse inputs such as family, peers, the educational system, religion, media, science and technology, geography, and current events

These broad forces create a common value system.

Generation gap


Values3

VALUES

Massey

Generational Differences

The Veterans (1922-1943) Great Depression and WWII. Wealth of lore and wisdom. Stabilizing force. Good old days

The Baby Boomers (1942-1960) Social protests, new lifestyles, anti-establishment. Graying. Concerned with level playing field, humanity to the workplace.


Values4

VALUES

Massey

Generational Differences

The Gen Xers (1960-1980) – Watergate, energy crisis, corporate downsizing. Latch

Key kids. Tech savvy, entrepreneurial, skeptical of hierarchies. No faith in job security. Free agency.


Values5

VALUES

Massey

Generational Differences

The Nexters (1980 +) – Soccer moms’ and little league dads’ kids. Doubt the wisdom of traditional racial and sexual categorizing. Rich with opportunities. Internet pen pals in China.


Foundations of leadership

FOUNDATIONS OF LEADERSHIP

Values, Interests, Motives, Goals

Personality Traits

Intelligence

Foundation to other leadership attributes.

Relatively enduring and permanent.


Values leadership

VALUES & LEADERSHIP

Values affect leaders’ perceptions

Values affect solutions generated

Values affect interpersonal relationships

Values influence perceptions of individual and organizational successes

Basis to distinguish right from wrong

Values affect the extent to which leaders accept or reject organizational pressures and goals


Key work values

KEY WORK VALUES

Recognition – stand out

Power – competition

Hedonism – fun

Altruistic – help others

Affiliation – working with others

Tradition – family values

Security – avoid risk

Commerce – financial success

Aesthetics – artistic expression

Science – analyze data


Principle centered leadership

PRINCIPLE-CENTERED LEADERSHIP

Covey

Fundamental interdependence between leadership levels:

Personal – be a trustworthy person

Interpersonal – relationships require trust

Managerial – empowerment requires trust

Organizational – creativity and productivity flow from trust and support


Moral thinking v acting

MORAL THINKING V ACTING

Bandura

Moral Justification - reinterpreting immoral behavior in terms of a higher purpose

Euphemistic labeling – cosmetic word use

Advantageous comparison – look at them

Displacement of responsibility – following orders

Diffusion of responsibility – other act same way


Moral thinking v acting1

MORAL THINKING V ACTING

Distortion of consequences – bureaucracies isolate decision makers

Dehumanization

Attribution of blame – claim others caused the actions

Darley’s Law – Ethical problems are almost inherent in systems designed to measure performance.


Moral thinking v acting2

MORAL THINKING V ACTING

Darley’s Law

Cheat on the measurement system by exploiting its weaknesses

Optimize performance measures without realizing the desired outcome

Manipulate the performance measurement system to allow continuation of their reading of system goals

Takes underground discussion about system goals.


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