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Bioenergy and Land Use Issues in Asia N. H. Ravindranath Indian Institute of Science Bangalore Key Messages Multiple options for land use – in the context of mitigating climate change & development

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Bioenergy and land use issues in asia l.jpg

Bioenergy and Land Use Issues in Asia

N. H. Ravindranath

Indian Institute of Science

Bangalore


Key messages l.jpg
Key Messages

Multiple options for land use – in the context of mitigating climate change & development

Biomass power, biofuels (liquid fuel), Afforestation for C-sink, timber production for substituting aluminum, steel, etc

Currently Asia is not a dominant biofuel producer / consumer of biofuels (like Brazil, US, EU)

However, dominant energy consumers have set targets for biofuels to substitute petroleum - thus Asia will be the key regions for biofules

China (15% - 2020), India (10%- 2020), Japan (30% by 2030), Malaysia/Indonesia/Thailand (10% -2020)

4. Biofuel program in India, China, Thailand etc are driven by need for Energy Security

Thus need to ensure minimal GHG emissions


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Key messages

Area under food production has stabilized in all the key Asian countries- unlikely to increase

India, China, Thailand, Malaysia, etc

Food grain needs will be met by increasing crop productivity and intensity

Large extents of degraded non-crop and marginal crop lands are available for

bioenergy/ biofuel crops / Carbon sink

Biodiesel crops such as Jatropha, oil Palm and tree based crops are key biofuel crops are critical in Asian countries

India, China, Malaysia, Indonesia


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Key messages

Land use for biofuel crops varies with countries

Degraded and marginal lands for Jatropha; India, China

Forest lands converted for oil Palm; Malaysia, Indonesia

GHG implications vary with land conversions involved and countries

India & China; degraded lands and with minimal energy input

Indonesia & Malaysia - forest lands with high carbon stocks

India & China have large biomass power programs for meeting decentralized power needs

Largely using degraded lands for producing woody biomass with minimal energy input for production of feedstock

Likely to provided large GHG benefits by substituting fossil fuel power & generate power for local applications

India has a large number of CDM projects on biomass power





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Malaysia

  • Palm oil plantations

    • <1 Mha in the 1970s

  • 4 million hectares in 2005.

    • Producing 15 Mt of crude palm oil

  • Target to expand to 5 Mha by 2010

    • to produce 20 Mt


Case study of jatropha in china l.jpg

Jatropha; Southwest China is the official targeted area for Jatropha

Estimated area; Current and projected in southwest China – barren lands

Ethanol

2008 = 1.5 Mha

2012 = 2.4 Mha

Case Study of Jatropha in China

Source: World Agroforestry Centre, 2007


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Indonesia; scale of biofuel program

Biodiesel

2005-07 = 212,000 ha

2008 = 663,000 ha

2017 = 2.67 Mha

Bio-ethanol

2008 = 50,000 ha

2017 = 54,000 ha


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India – scale of biofuel program

Biodiesel

2008 = 279,000 ha

2017 = 340,000 ha

Bioethanol

2008 = 451,000 ha

2017 = 854,000 ha


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Trends in Land use Pattern-India

Source: http://www.faostat.fao.org/site/377/default.aspx.



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Forest Survey of India., State of Forest Report

Forest Survey of India., State of Forest Report

Afforestation Rate in India

Source: Forest Survey of India., State of Forest Report


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Trends in Area under Forests

http://envfor.nic.in/nfap/


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Land available for biomass production for energy (Mha)40-65 Mha is available for energy



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Biofuel Production Share of Petroleum and Diesel


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Conclusions

  • Biofuel will be very important in Asia from energy security perspective

  • Need for research and informed debate on implications of large-scale biofuel production / consumption / export

    • GHG emissions

    • Food security and energy security

    • Socio-economic aspects

  • Alternate land uses in the context of climate mitigation & development is required;

    • Biomass power

    • Carbon sink through afforestation

    • Biofules – liquid fuels

    • Solid fuels; charcoal and fuelwood

  • Need for good database for scientifically analysis


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