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ASTER APPLICATIONS TO EARTH SCIENCE. Anne Kahle 1 , Michael Abrams 1 , Ronald Alley 1 , Alan Gillespie 2 , Frank Palluconi 1 , David Pieri 1 , Michael Ramsey 3 , Laurence Rowan 4 , Thomas Schmugge 5 , Will Stevanov 6 , Kurt Thome 7 , Rick Wessels 8

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ASTER APPLICATIONS TO EARTH SCIENCE

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ASTERAPPLICATIONS TO EARTH SCIENCE

  • Anne Kahle1, Michael Abrams1, Ronald Alley1, Alan Gillespie2, Frank Palluconi1, David Pieri1, Michael Ramsey3, Laurence Rowan4, Thomas Schmugge5, Will Stevanov6, Kurt Thome7, Rick Wessels8

  • 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA

  • 2University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

  • 3University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

  • 4U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, USA

  • 5USDA/ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab, Beltsville, Maryland, USA

  • 6Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

  • 7University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

  • 8Arizona State University/U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA


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ASTER

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer


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ASTER Bands


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  • ASTER high spatial resolution observations from the visible through the thermal infrared spectral regions are being used to study:

    • Surface properties such as temperature, emissivity, and reflectivity

    • Elements of the surface heat balance including radiative, sensible, and latent heat fluxes as inputs to models of the global energy and climate systems

    • Evapotranspiration and hydrology

    • Glacier extent, velocities, and changes

    • Volcanoes, including eruption monitoring

    • Geology and topography of the land surface

    • Coral reefs and coastal processes

    • Patterns of vegetation, land use, and surface change

    • Sea ice extent and albedo and the areas of open leads and meltponds

    • Hazard monitoring, including wild fires, landslides, flooding

    • Urban monitoring


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ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT

  • Science algorithm selected by appropriate working group (joint U.S./Japanese)

  • Algorithm developer creates prototype software

  • Product generation group builds operational software

  • Software installed at DAAC (EDC)

  • Developer validates, modifies, updates

    • Example: MODIS and MISR atmospheric data now in process of being incorporated


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DECORRELATION STRETCHRonald Alley, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  • Available for each telescope separately

  • Enhances spectral differences by removing interband correlation

  • Used as browse for selecting suitable scenes for further research


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Death Valley CA: VNIR321


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321

321 DST

468 DST

131210 DST


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Death Valley CA: VNIR321 DST


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Death Valley CA: SWIR468 DST


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Death Valley CA: TIR131210 DST


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Death Valley CA: TIR draped over DEM


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BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURERonald Alley, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  • Apparent temperature, assuming a surface emissivity, with no atmospheric correction

  • Used to observe volcanoes, fire, ice leads, etc.

  • Used for cloud top temperatures, which are excluded from surface radiance calculations


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Brightness Temperature - Land


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Brightness Temperature - Water


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SURFACE RADIANCE VNIR & SWIR

Kurt Thome, University of Arizona

  • Algorithm uses RTC to correct at satellite radiance to surface radiance

    • Method assumes atmospheric properties are known from other sources, e.g., satellite sensor data, ground based measurements, climatology


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SURFACE RADIANCE TIRFrank Palluconi, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  • Algorithm uses RTC to correct at satellite radiance to surface radiance

    • Method assumes atmospheric properties are known from other sources, e.g., satellite sensor data, ground based measurements, climatology


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ASTER Level 2 Data Product AST 09T “Surface Leaving Radiance” And “Sky Irradiance”: Lake Tahoe 27 February 2002 Example

Surface Leaving Radiance: (W/m2/sr/µm)

Sky Irradiance: (W/me/µm)

Band 13


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TEMPERATURE/EMISSIVITYSEPARATIONAlan Gillespie, University of Washington, Shuichi Rokugawa, Tokyo University

  • Algorithm

    • Combination of alpha residual and MMD algorithms

  • Accuracy

    • 1-2K and 0.01-0.02 emissivity units


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Death Valley CA – color-coded Temperature


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Death Valley - Emissivity


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ASTER DEMMichael Abrams, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  • Relative or absolute

  • 30 m postings

  • Produced from Level 1A 3N and 3B images

  • Created at EDCDAAC through EDG tool


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San Bernardino CA


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Color, shaded relief ASTER DEM San Bernardino


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3-D Perspective View to NW along San Andreas Fault near San Bernardino CA


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3-D Perspective View looking NE over Grand Canyon


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3-D Perspective View over Grand Canyon Looking East


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ASTER POLAR CLOUD MASKRon Welch, University of Alabama in Huntsville

  • Neural network based supervised classifier

    • Accuracy > 90% for cloud detection

    • Also applicable to nonpolar imagery


Classifier results for greenland july 30 2000

Classifier Results for GreenlandJuly 30, 2000

RGB Color Composite

Classifier Result Image

Red: Ch 14 grey flippedGreen Ch 4Blue Ch 1All Channels histogram equalized

Blue – water

Green – land

White – snow/ice

Orange – water cloud


Classifier results for siberia russia october 8 2000

Classifier Results for Siberia, RussiaOctober 8, 2000

RGB Color Composite

Classifier Result Image

Green – land

White – snow/ice

Orange – water cloud

Pink – cirrus

Grey – shadow

Red: Ch 14 grey flippedGreen Ch 4Blue Ch 1All Channels histogram equalized


Validation results for barrow ak arm site april 22 2002

Validation Results for Barrow AK ARM SiteApril 22, 2002

RGB Color Composite

Cloud Cover Validation Results

ASTER Polar Cloud Mask1%

Whole Sky Imager1%

Vaisalla Ceilometer1%

Red: Ch 14 grey flippedGreen Ch 4Blue Ch 1

  • Circled area is 15km radius around Barrow ARM site

  • +/- 15 minute time average used for Vaisalla Ceilometer


Validation results for barrow ak arm site april 21 2001

Validation Results for Barrow AK ARM SiteApril 21, 2001

RGB Color Composite

Cloud Cover Validation Results

ASTER Polar Cloud Mask62%

Whole Sky Imager72%

Vaisalla Ceilometer88%

Red: Ch 14 grey flippedGreen Ch 4Blue Ch 1

  • Circled area is 15km radius around Barrow ARM site

  • +/- 15 minute time average used for Vaisalla Ceilometer


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APPLICATIONS

  • Surface Energy Balance

  • Geology

  • Wild Fires

  • Urban Monitoring

  • Glacial Monitoring

  • Volcano Monitoring

  • Wetland Studies

  • Land Use


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Surface Energy Balance


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Surface Energy Balance from ASTER data

El Reno OK, 4-Sep-2000, Kustas & Norman 2-source model


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ASTER data of El Reno OK, 4-Sep-2000: NDVI & Surface Temperature


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Daytime (7/10)

Nighttime (9/17)

NDVI

NDVI

Surface Temp.(℃)

Surface Temp.(℃)

Relation between Surface Temperature & NDVI


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Geology


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Kunlun Fault, Tibet showing left-lateral strike slip displacement


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Richat Structure, Mauritania, Africa


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Salt Dome in Iran


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Return to Cuprite


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Tonopah

West-central Nevada

ASTER SWIR 4-6-8 RGB saturation stretched

Goldfield

Cuprite


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ASTER 4-6-8 RGB saturation stretch

Goldfield

Cuprite

Tonopah


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ASTER SWIR data for Cuprite classified using Spectral Angle Mapper


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SWIR Mineral spectra: ASTER image & USGS library


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ASTER TIR Cuprite, NV

Night TIR

Bands 13-12-10 RGB Dstretch

Day TIR

Bands 13-12-10 RGB saturation stretch


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Escondido Copper Mine, Chile

VNIR

SWIR


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Wild Fires


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Hayman Fire, Colorado

June 16, 2002

ASTER bands 8-3-2 as RGB


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Biscuit Fire, Colorado

August, 2002

ASTER bands 123 as natural color with band 8 (red) for active fires


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Tornado Rips Through Maryland

On April 28, 2002 an F5 tornado destroyed La Plata, killing 5 and injuring 100.


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Urban Monitoring


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Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Project at Arizona State University

N

Classification of Paris,

France Land Cover

ASTER visible near-

infrared data acquired

23-May-01

Green – Vegetated/Rural

Blue – Water

Red – Built Material/Urban

Built Material land cover

in scene = 31%

23 km


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Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Project at Arizona State University

N

Assessment of Urban Growth for Lyon, France

Green – Vegetated/Rural

Blue – Water

Red – Built Material/Urban

20 km

20 km

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS)

data acquired 20-Mar-73 (80 m/pixel)

ASTER visible to near infrared data

acquired 26-Jun-01 (15 m/pixel)

Built Material land cover in scene = 50 %

Built Material land cover in scene = 61 %


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Paris, France


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Eiffel Tower

Arc de Triomphe

Louvre

La Defense


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Growth of Riyadh Saudi Arabia


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Growth of Boston, Massachusets

ASTER Visible Image 1838 Map


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Glacial Monitoring


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Global Land Ice Measurements from Space

View from top of Llewellyn Glacier, British Columbia

  • Goal is to determine the extent of world’s glaciers and the rate at which they are changing.

  • Acquire global set of ASTER images

  • Map global extent of land ice

  • Analyze interannual changes in length, area, surface flow fields


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Patagonia Glacier in Chile


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College Fjord, AK


Aster ice velocities apr 00 apr 01

N

Courtesy of Andreas Kaeaeb

ASTERIce velocities Apr 00 – Apr 01

Mt. Cook


N patagonia ice field

N. Patagonia Ice Field

GLIMS.org


Aster ice detection

1973 inventory

1999 TM

ASTERIce detection

2001 ASTER

1 km

Courtesy of Andreas Kaeaeb


Tasman glacier

N

Tasman glacier,NZ

Tasman glacier

Mt. Cook

Courtesy of Andreas Kaeaeb

25 km


Ice velocity lake growth

N

Ice velocity / lake growth

1 km

Courtesy of Andreas Kaeaeb


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Volcano Monitoring


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ASTER data are improving our knowledge of the dynamics of magma rise, intrusion, and eruption

Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

Summit Crater in 2000-2001

Kilauea, Hawaii Lava Flows

May-June 2000

9/00

10/00

11/00

1/01

SWIR TIR

Nighttime Thermal Infrared

  • Volcanism is a surface manifestation of mantle convection.

  • ASTER observations of volcano’s thermal behavior and eruptions improve our understanding of dynamics

  • Systematic monitoring of volcanoes by ASTER enhances our abilities to predict eruptions


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Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico: Summit Crater in 2000-2001

Sept 6, 00

Oct 10, 00

Nov 11, 00

Jan 2, 01

Band 5 Band 14


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Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico: January 2, 2001

5

6

7

8

4

9

14

Crater

10

13

12

11


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Pu’u O’o Flows, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

May 13, 2000 May 22, 2000 June 30, 2000

August 1, 2000 January 1, 2001 May 25, 2001


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Monitoring Example: Bezymianny

  • Bezymianny Volcano

    • Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    • large, crater-forming eruption in 1955-1956

    • first activity in over 1000 years

    • dome-forming activity & less-common Plinean eruptions

    • > 30 ASTER scenes (May 2000 - Jan. 2001)


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Results: Bezymianny

  • High Quality Scenes

    • 14 TIR (significant thermal anomalies)

    • 4 SWIR (significant thermal anomalies)

    • 1 VNIR (cloud-free)

  • Thermal Anomalies Detected

    • from June, 2000 (TIR)

    • during Sept-Oct heightened activity phase (SWIR)

      • corresponds to AVHRR

  • Higher Spatial Resolution

    • detailed structure of the dome and hot flow material

    • allowed for model-derived surface texture mapping

      • first successful application to active dome monitoring


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Results: Bezymianny

  • ASTER TIR

    • greater radiometric sensitivity

      • resolve anomalies <100 C

    • higher spatial resolution

      • 90m vs. 1.1km

      • location and movement of anomalies


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Three sisters, Cascades, Oregon

10 cm uplift since 1996


Volcanic so 2 flux monitoring with aster

ASTER TIR

RGB : 11, 13, 14

On November 8, 2000

Volcanic SO2 flux monitoring with ASTER

  • SO2rich plume absorbs 8.6µm thermal emission from the sea

    surface -> Lower brightness temperature for band 11 (Cyan color).

  • SO2 flux was estimated at 3 - 10 x104 [t/day] on Nov. 8, 2000.

Miyakejima Island, Japan

SO2 plume

by M. Urai of the Geoloical Survey of Japan


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Perspective Views of Mt. St. Helens Volcano

August 8, 2000 image; combination of ASTER DEM and bands 2 3 1


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Mt. St. Helens, WA in August 2000


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ASTER DEM Change Detection

Etna summit

A

Line 215

Approx. Location of

Line 215

A

B

1992 Lava Flow above Val Calanna

B

Line 215

  • 1991-93 lava accumulation is visible in ASTER DEM topographic profile.

  • Current ASTER DEM change detection threshold 50m.

A

B


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July 25, 2001 Eruption of Mt. Etna

Visible ImageTIR Image


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January 2002 Eruption of Nyiragongo Volcano, Congo

Nyiragongo erupted January 17, 2002 sending streams of lave through the town of Goma. More than 100 people were killed. This perspective view combines ASTER thermal data (red) showing the active lava flows and lava in the crater; Landsat Thematic Mapper image, and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation data.


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Chiliques Volcano Awakens in Chile

ASTER nighttime thermal data discovered thermal anomaly in January 2002, continuing in April 2002. Visible image reveals 2 crater lakes at summit, that have suddenly become hot. Chilliques has shown no historic activity, but may be re-awakening.


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Wetland Studies


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San Francisco:

Visible bands


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Sediment Image Temperature Image


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Junction of Amazon and Rio Negro at Manaus


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Drought in New York

The Ashokan Reservoir in New York (top) has shrunk to 52% capacity due to drought in the spring of 2002.


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Po River Delta


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Po River Delta


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Mississippi River Delta


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Istanbul and the Bospurus Strait


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Lake Garda, Italy


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Water Clarity Degradation, Lake Tahoe

Since 1965, water clarity has degraded 1’ per year. Algae and urban growth are to blame.


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Land Use


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Expert System Land Cover Classification

Phoenix, AZ

Istanbul, Turkey

ASTER Science Team Meeting 01/14/02


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Nuclear Power Plants, Illinois. Visible images (top) and TIR images (bottom)


Agricultural land use map

ASTER

(Kushiro city, Hokkaido, Japan)

Agricultural Land Use Map


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Nazca Lines, Peru


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Forest clear-cutting in Oregon


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3 Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River, China


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US-Mexico border at Mexicali


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Great Wall of China


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Teotihuacan, Mexico

Growing to 100,000+ inhabitants in the 4th century, Teotihuacan was abandoned in the 9th century. Massive pyramids were used for religious ceremonies.


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