Exploration and colonization
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Exploration and Colonization. Pages 1…. Let’s TRADE!!. European countries were trading with places like Africa and Asia. Africa had gold, ivory, salt, and slaves. Asia had silk and spices. Prices were being marked up by merchants along land routes.

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Exploration and colonization

Exploration and Colonization

Pages 1…


Let s trade

Let’s TRADE!!

  • European countries were trading with places like Africa and Asia.

  • Africa had gold, ivory, salt, and slaves.

  • Asia had silk and spices.

  • Prices were being marked up by merchants along land routes.

  • Europeans wanted to find a water route so they could trade directly.


1492 columbus sailed

1492 – Columbus sailed…

  • The king and queen of Spain agreed to pay for Columbus’ trip.

  • Columbus landed in the Bahamas. He called the natives – Indians.

  • Although his journey was not very productive, he boasted about the great riches to be had in this new land.

  • More countries were drawn to the “New World.”


Reasons for european exploration

Reasons for European Exploration

G – G – G

God

Gold

Glory


Reasons for european exploration1

Reasons for European Exploration

Spain - Portugal - England - France

Religion

Fame

National Pride

Curiosity

Wealth

Faster/Cheaper trade routes to Asia


Columbian exchange

Columbian Exchange

NEW

WORLD

Corn, potatoes, tobacco

OLD

WORLD

Horses, cattle, pigs

DISEASES – OOPS!


Search for the northwest passage

Search for the Northwest Passage

  • Explorers were looking for a water route to the Pacific Ocean.

  • This would allow ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

  • They never found a way. This route wasn’t found until 1903!


Coming to america

Coming to America…

  • Many countries sought the “New World” and its riches.

  • Different countries/groups came over for different reasons:

  • French –Trappers/Traders

  • British – Farmers

  • Dutch – Businesses

  • Spanish – Missions

  • Africans - Slaves


Protestant reformation

Protestant Reformation

  • There was a religious movement in Europe in a effort to reform the Catholic Church

  • King Henry VIII founded the Church of England

  • Religious persecution soon followed

  • Religion was forced on many citizens of various countries

  • This brought many religious groups to the colonies

  • Especially New England and Middle Colonies


Why colonize

Why colonize?

  • Religious Freedom**

  • Political Freedom

  • Economic Opportunity

  • Social Mobility

  • A better way of life


Jamestown 1607

Jamestown 1607

Jamestown was the first

English Colony.

Jamestown was first settled by

Mostly men.

There were many problems faced by the colonist. They were not prepared for the difficulties.

Pocahontas married John Rolfe. This made peace between the colonists and the Native Americans. She greatly helped the colonists survive.

John Rolfe had tobacco seeds, which flourished in the soil.

This became a cash crop in Virginia.


Plymouth 1620

Plymouth 1620

  • The Pilgrims came over on a ship called

    The Mayflower.

    They came over for religious freedom.

    They signed a document called the

    Mayflower Compact.

    The Mayflower Compact stressed the idea of self-government and majority rule.

    It was used as an example for Representative Government.


Religious groups

Religious Groups

  • Immigrated to flee religious persecution

  • Separatists/Pilgrims – Massachusetts

  • Puritans – Massachusetts

  • Quakers – Pennsylvania

  • Catholics - Maryland


Ethnic groups

Ethnic Groups

  • Dutch (New York) – Economic reasons

  • Swedes (Delaware) – Economic reasons

  • English – Religious and political reasons


Racial groups

Racial Groups

  • Europeans

  • Africans(enslaved)


Becoming british

Becoming British

  • A series of wars in Europe made Britain the dominate force in America with the 13 colonies.

  • Britain saw the colonies as a resource to benefit the “mother country.”


New england colonies

New EnglandColonies:

  • Access to waterways

  • High population density and large urban areas

  • Shipbuilding and manufacturing region

  • ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES:

  • Cause- long winters, rocky soil, forests

  • Effect – Subsistence farming, shipbuilding, fishing


New england colonies1

New England Colonies

  • Physical Characteristics

  • Atlantic Ocean, subsistence farming, poor soil, cold climate, forest

  • Human Characteristics

  • Economic- raw materials, logging, fishing, shipbuilding

  • Political – town meetings, representative government

  • Social – small coastal towns (Boston, only large city)

  • Religious - Puritans


Middle colonies

Middle Colonies

  • Access to waterways

  • High population density and large urban areas

  • Agriculture and cattle producing

  • ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES

  • Cause – shorter winters, fertile soil, good ports, natural resources

  • Effect – farming (staple crops), trade, large immigrant population


Middle colonies1

Middle Colonies

  • Physical Characteristics

  • Rich soil, broad, deep rivers, more natural ports, river valleys, mild winters, raw materials, Atlantic Ocean

  • Human Characteristics

  • Economic – large farms, logging, fishing, shipbuilding

  • Political – more tolerance

  • Social – small coastal towns (Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York were large cities)

  • Religious – Quakers, Catholics


Southern colonies

Southern Colonies

  • Abundant amount of fertile soil

  • Low population density, farms

  • Cash-crop agricultural area (cotton, indigo, rice, tobacco)

  • ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES

  • Cause – warm climate and good soil

  • Effect – plantation system and large slave system


Southern colonies1

Southern Colonies

  • Physical Characteristics

  • Appalachian Mountains, navigable rivers, richer soil, warm climate, raw materials

  • Human Characteristics

  • Economic – plantations

  • Political – more slaves, more class-based society

  • Social – small coastal towns (Savannah, Charleston were the large cities)

  • Religious – Church of England, Catholics(Maryland), more diverse


13 colonies

13 Colonies

  • Geography was the primary cause for economic differences.


Appalachian mountains

Appalachian Mountains

  • These mountains acted as a barrier for the colonies. Most colonists did not cross this region.


Plantation system

Plantation System

  • Large amount of land available in the Southern colonies

  • Rich soil

  • Almost year-round growing season

  • Ideal for plantation crops (tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton)

  • With enough labor they could be grown as cash crops


Transatlantic slave trade

Transatlantic Slave Trade

  • Started in the British West Indes

  • Provided a labor force for the sugar plantations

  • The map shows major slave trading regions, 15th-19th centuries


Spread of slavery

Spread of Slavery

  • Demand for rice, indigo, tobacco, and cotton

  • Led to plantation owners needing more slaves

  • The slave system increased

  • Indentured Servants – colonists who could not pay their way over to America, so they agreed to serve for four to seven years. After their time was served, they were free colonists.

  • Slaves became more popular because they could not earn their freedom.

  • The south was agrarian, and slaves kept the plantations profitable.


Impact of slavery

Impact of Slavery

  • South –

  • Economic factor – Slaves viewed as property and labor supply

  • Aided in the development of the plantation system and agrarian South


Factors on slaves and free blacks

Factors on Slaves and Free Blacks

  • Slaves –

  • Political – no political voice, no rights

  • Economic – labor of the plantation system, considered property, children considered property and sold with no regard to parents

  • Social – viewed as property, viewed outside the American identity

  • Free Blacks –

  • Political – no political voice, limited/restricted rights

  • Economic – low wage earners

  • Social – lowest social class, limited access to education, socially isolated


Triangular trade

Triangular Trade


First great awakening

First Great Awakening

  • A major religious revival

  • Democratized the Protestant faith by proclaiming salvation for all.

  • Stimulated growth in all denominations

  • Assured the common man could have salvation as well as those predestined

  • Churches welcomed minority groups, women, African Americans, and Native Americans

  • Communication increased between the colonies

  • It contributed to the revolutionary idea of independence from Britain years later.


Where will settlements be and what about the natives

Where will settlements be? And what about the Natives?

  • Physical geographic factors –

  • Proximity to Atlantic coastline determined where settlements/colonies were created

  • Human geographic factors –

  • Removal of Native Americans, disease and conflict

  • How do we solve this conflict with the Natives?

  • Treaty system


Contributions of women

Contributions of Women

  • Political –

  • Pocahontas helped John Smith and the European settlers in Virginia

  • Social –

  • Anne Hutchinson led Bible studies against the orders of church leaders


The development of religious freedom

The Development of Religious Freedom

  • 1620- Plymouth Colony

  • Self-governing church with each congregation independent and electing its own pastor and officers

  • 17th Century Massachusetts Bay

  • Churches also fairly democratic in that they elected ministers and other officers, but church closely tied with state government

  • 1631 – Roger Williams founded Rhode Island

  • Separated church and state

  • 1681-1776 – Penn’s Frames of Government

  • Guaranteed religious freedom to all settlers in Pennsylvania

  • 1689 – Toleration Acts

  • Maryland founded as a haven for Catholics

  • 1791 – Bill of Rights added to the Constitution


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