Community based watershed management in ohio
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Community-Based Watershed Management in Ohio. Watershed Workshop Morehead State University May 11, 2006 Robert McCall Dana Oleskiewicz Center at Lima Center at Wooster Educators, Watershed Management Ohio State University Extension. Objectives:.

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Community based watershed management in ohio

Community-Based Watershed Management in Ohio

Watershed Workshop

Morehead State University

May 11, 2006

Robert McCall Dana Oleskiewicz

Center at Lima Center at Wooster

Educators, Watershed Management

Ohio State University Extension


Objectives

Objectives:

  • Define Community-Based Watershed Management (CBWM)

  • Explore Two Ohio Case Studies

  • Tools of the Trade


Community based watershed management in ohio

  • Water resource protection

  • through watershed management efforts

  • for the goal of high water quality

  • requires planning

  • by communities (stakeholders)

  • within the watershed.

  • a.k.a.

  • Community-Based Watershed Management!!


A model for success

A Model for Success

Facilitating Agency

Community-Based Watershed Management

with Stakeholder Involvement

Community Organization

Steelman, Toddi. 1999.


Community based watershed management in ohio

Implementing the W-shed Approach

Build Public Support

  • Establish the core watershed group

  • Create a mission statement

  • Promote activities in the watershed

  • Recruit new stakeholders

Create an Inventory

Implement & Evaluate

  • Define the watershed

  • Assess the quality of the water resource

  • Examine the human and ecological features that affect the quality of the water resource

  • Measure progress

  • Revisit the action plan and make adjustments where needed

Define the Problems

  • Identify the pollutants causing the problems

  • Identify the sources of the pollutants

  • Identify high quality areas to protect

  • Formulate a problem statement

Create an Action Plan

  • Set priorities

  • Set timeframes

  • Assign tasks

  • Obtain funding

Set Goals &

Develop Solutions

  • Evaluate potential solutions for the identified problems

  • Set goals and measurable indicators

  • Select solutions that achieve goals

Ohio EPA. “A Guide to Developing Local Watershed Action Plans in Ohio”. 1997.


Community based watershed management in ohio

The CBWM Approach

Build Public Support

Create an Inventory

Implement & Evaluate

Define the Problems

Create an Action Plan

Set Goals &

Develop Solutions

Ohio EPA. “A Guide to Developing Local Watershed Action Plans in Ohio”. 1997.


Community based watershed management in ohio

Why Community-Based?

  • Problems are complex

  • Solutions exceed capabilities of one entity

  • Collaborative decisions necessary

    • Communities have vested interest

    • Local people are crucial

      • Define workable options

      • Enforce management choices

      • Monitor the effectiveness

Steelman, T.A. 1999.


Community based watershed management in ohio

Social Goals

  • Educate and inform the general public

  • Incorporate public values into decisions

  • Improve the quality of decisions

  • Resolve conflict among competing interests

  • Build trust in institutions

Beierle, T.C. & J. Cayford. 2002.


Environmental behavior model

Environmental Behavior Model

  • Entry-level - (awareness)

  • Ownership - (knowledge)

  • Empowerment - (attitude / skills)

  • Citizenship (Steward) Behavior - (motivation)

Hungerford & Volk. 1990.


Community based watershed management in ohio

CBWM and Sustainability

Environmental

Socio-Economic

Biophysical / Ecological

Quality of Life!

Societal

Economic

Policy and Institutional


Watershed management core components

Watershed Management Core Components

  • Science-Based – Decisions based on data

  • Community-Led – Stakeholders decide

  • Sustainable – Long-term coordination

http://www.epa.state.oh.us/dsw/nps/NPSMP/index.html


Community based watershed management in ohio

CBWM Core Components

Science-Based

Socio-Economic Considerations

Biophysical / Ecological Considerations

Effective Stakeholder Participation

Community-Led

Sustainable

Policy and Institutional Considerations


Community based watershed management in ohio

Implementation Continuum

Water Quality Attainment Drinking Water Protection

5. Sustained implementation of endorsed WAP

4. WAP receives state endorsement

3. Group develops Watershed Action Plan

2. Coordinated, issue-based local group forms

1. Local water resource advocate / steward

http://www.epa.state.oh.us/dsw/nps/NPSMP/index.html


Developing capacity resources needed

Resources Delivered

Developing CapacityResources Needed

  • People - Staff

  • Technical - Knowledge

  • Financial - Money

  • Networking - Partnerships

  • Organizational - Efficiency

  • Legitimacy - Good Representation

Stakeholders!

Steelman, Toddi. 1999.


Community based watershed management in ohio

Management Challenges

  • Low stakeholder involvement

  • Lack of local ownership

  • Planning at too great a scale

  • One-time study, not long-term management

  • Land use issues not addressed

  • Document too long or complex

  • Recommendations were too general

Center for Watershed Protection (www.cwp.org)


Successful watershed management

Successful Watershed Management

=

  • Strong Community-Based Effort

  • (Stakeholders)

  • +

  • Good Partnership-Building

  • (Buy-In)

  • +

  • Effective and Collaborative

  • Environmental Decision-Making

  • (Best Management Practices)


Community based watershed management in ohio

Case Study Watersheds


Case study 1

Case Study #1

Blanchard River Watershed Partnership


Community based watershed management in ohio

Blanchard River Watershed PartnershipStakeholders to date

  • City

    • Reg. Plan. Comm.

    • Utilities Director

    • W W Treatment Plant

    • County Engineering

    • Civic Groups

  • Regional

    • RC&D

    • OSU Extension

    • ODNR

    • Ohio EPA

    • Non-profit orgs.

County

Commissioners

Engineering

Extension

Farm Bureau

Regional Planning

Parks District

SWCD

Farm Service Agency

Dept. of Health & Human Services

Township Trustees

Industry

Consultants

General Public


Community based watershed management in ohio

Blanchard River Watershed PartnershipIssues of Public Concern

Ottawa, Ohio (04/20/04Water velocity, erosion and sedimentation

Flooding

Drinking water quality

Recreation

Septic discharge

Fertilizer use

Maintaining drainage foragr. production

  • Bluffton, Ohio (04/28/04)

    • Get youth interested and involved in the basin

    • Water quality and run-off

    • Local ditching projects, removal of Riparian area

    • Erosion and sedimentation

    • Flooding and results of flooding

    • Water and smart growth and its effects

    • Non-point source pollution


Community based watershed management in ohio

Blanchard River Watershed CouncilIssues of Public Concern

Findlay, Ohio (03/29/04)

HSTS Plans

Sedimentation in waterways

Sustainable development

Flooding and drainage

Agricultural run-off

River water quality impacts on reservoir

Treatment costs for drinking water

Quantity and quality of water resources

Flow management and drainage

  • Stream bank erosion

  • Total maximum daily load (TMDL = OEPA Assmnt.)

  • Flooding and water quality

  • Loss of wetlands

  • Riparian habitat, wetlands and water quality

  • Stakeholder driven solutions and watershed planning

  • Recreation (fishing, canoeing, wildlife habitat)


Brwp where are they now

BRWP: Where are they now?

  • Working on watershed inventory

  • Reviewing 501c3 options

  • Soliciting sponsors for a Watershed Coordinator Grant


Potential organizational development model

Sub W-S #1

Sub W-S #2

Sub W-S #3

Sub W-S #4

Sub W-S #5

Sub W-S #6

Potential Organizational Development Model

Steering Committee

Project Sponsor:

Funding & administrative

support.

Staff:

Coordinator

Interns?

Supp. Staff?

Executive Committee

Standing Committees under the Steering Committee, including the Executive Committee

Marketing & Communication

Development & Fundraising

Stream Flow & Habitat

Membership

Water

Wastewater

Agriculture

Education

Watershed Action Plans to work on.


Current organizational development model

Current Organizational Development Model

Steering Committee

Project Sponsor:

Funding & administrative

support.

Staff:

Coordinator

Interns?

Supp. Staff?

Executive Committee

Standing Committees under the Steering Committee, including the Executive Committee

Marketing & Communication

Development & Fundraising

Stream Flow & Habitat

Outreach/Ed./Membership

Agriculture

Water/Wastewater

Currently gathering watershed assessment information for the entire watershed


Coordinator sponsor survey

Coordinator Sponsor Survey?

  • Fiscal capabilities

  • Adm. Support

  • Technical Support

  • Housing

  • Equipment

  • Overhead

  • Experience with NP, PS, Pr S.


Sugar creek watershed partnership

Case Study #2

Sugar Creek Watershed Partnership


Method used in upper sugar creek subwatershed

METHOD USED IN UPPER SUGAR CREEK SUBWATERSHED

MORAL

DILEMMA ABOUT

GOOD STEWARD

SELF-CONCEPT

SOCIAL

RESPONSIBILITY

BASED WQ

TESTING

DISTRUST OF

EPA DATA

INVITATION

TO HOT SPOT

FARMERS TO

JOIN TEAM

1 TEST SITE

PER SQ MILE

EVERY 2 WEEKS

HOT

SPOTS

CORRELATION OF HOT SPOTS WITH PRIMARY HEADWATERS


Community based watershed management in ohio

PARTICIPATORY TEAMS


Sugar creek farmer teams

SUGAR CREEK FARMER TEAMS

UPPER SC

Self selected group of neighbors

PARTICIPATORY

TEAMS IN

SUBWATERSHEDS

--Joint buffer by neighbors

--Hot Spots

LITTLE SC

No group yet but likely

--Kingsway C.S.

--DOT wetlands/30 BYPASS

--Troyers

--Amish/non Amish

tributary joint action

--Amish marketing coop

--Kidron Drinking Water

NORTH FORK

Task Force of Leading

Citizens

--temporary livestock

exclusion

--Amish marketing coop

--Interest in septic systems

SOUTH FORK

Farmerstown South Church District / Maple Grove School


Building community

BUILDING COMMUNITY

  • Summer 2000 - Low trust in EPA

  • Fall 2000 - Desire to be good stewards

  • Winter 2001 - Joint reconnaissance mission by farmer and researchers

  • 2001-2002 - Collect own data and inquiry

  • Summer 2001 - Approve EPA grant proposal

  • Summer 2002 - Invite EPA on Stream Walk


Social indicators according to farmer team

SOCIAL INDICATORSAccording to Farmer Team

  • Decision to be good land/water stewards

    • Regardless of EPA data

  • Realize their inquiries have scientific merit

  • Request samples for specific questions

  • Neighbors chosen for purposeful action

    • “hot spot” approach

  • Smithville Town Council involved

Decisions and Actions


Social indicators according to farmer team1

SOCIAL INDICATORSAccording to Farmer Team

  • Letters to neighbors

  • Going out to lunch together for first time

  • Dreaming about a buffer hunting zone

  • Talking about project at high school games

  • First farm family to put in a riparian buffer

Unity, Significance, and Purpose


Case study

CASE STUDY

Richard H. Moore, Associate Professor

Human and Community Resource Development.

Ohio State University.

([email protected])


Http sugarcreekmethod osu edu

http://sugarcreekmethod.osu.edu/

Sugar Creek Method:

  • Focus on headwaters and benchmark water quality

  • Treat each stream as unique

  • Survey community values, concerns, and aspirations

  • Catalyze local level participatory learning

  • Collaborate with downstream teams

  • Build on “healthy environment, healthy people”

  • Seek to find suitable methods of protection


Tools for watershed action planning

Tools for Watershed Action Planning

http://www.epa.state.oh.us/dsw/nps/guide.html


Community based watershed management in ohio

Tools for Stakeholder Involvement

  • Conduct a thorough search for stakeholders

  • Build relationships and make it fun

  • Employ conflict resolution

  • Remain vigilant and get organized

  • Remember – calendars and “to do” lists!


Community based watershed management in ohio

Tools for Stakeholder Involvement

Community Invitees

  • Building & Development

  • Community Services

  • Economic Development

  • Health Department

  • Land Records & Property Transfers

  • Libraries

  • Mapping & Geographic Information

  • Parks and Recreation

  • Planning & Zoning

  • School Boards

  • Social Services

  • Tourism Board

  • Water & Sewer Services

MacPherson & Tonning, Tetra Tech, Inc.


Community based watershed management in ohio

Dept. of Transportation

Civic Organizations

Religious Groups

Rec. Organizations

Historical / Cultural Associations

Business Organizations

Financial Institutions

Home Associations

Realtors

Political Organizations

Parent-Teacher Associations

Major Landowners

Tools for Stakeholder Involvement

Community Invitees


Community based watershed management in ohio

Tools for Stakeholder Involvement

  • Make the invitation - direct ask and early on

  • Distribute the materials - widely cast the net

  • Know the audience - carefully craft the message

  • Understand their needs - address their concerns

  • Continue to inform - don’t give up

  • Create the forum - make it easy!


Tools for stakeholder input

Tools for Stakeholder Input

The Meeting

Goal – Inform the community, garner trust, and collect opinions

Challenge – To gather a crowd and be efficient

  • Communicate clearly and often

  • Call meetings only when necessary

  • Use collaborative processes and good facilitation

  • Provide advanced notice and prior written information

  • Develop a strong agenda and employ time management


Tools for stakeholder input1

Tools for Stakeholder Input

The Interview

Goal – Better understand the community and build relations

Challenge – Is time-intensive

  • Reach the un-reached audiences

  • Be strategic in selecting interviewees

  • Begin with good questions

  • Avoid responsive body language or comments

  • End with “Do you have anything else to say?”

  • Record and transcribe interviews with paraphrasing


Tools for stakeholder input2

Tools for Stakeholder Input

The Exercises

Goal – Gather the wants and needs of the community

Challenge – Make it effective and informative

  • “Brainstorm” on problems and possible solutions

  • Use “Vision to Action” to move group agenda forward

  • Employ “Group Discussion” to record audience thoughts

  • Create and send a “Survey” for quantitative information

  • Present a “Dot Matrix” to prioritize issues

  • Appreciative Inquiry Process to avoid negative focus


Community based watershed management in ohio

Tools for Success

  • Make it exciting and worthwhile

  • Plan for results

  • Manage the process effectively

  • Involve stakeholders as soon as possible

  • Be honest and listen carefully

  • Recognize differences early on

  • Don’t leave out difficult stakeholders

MacPherson & Tonning, Tetra Tech, Inc.


Community based watershed management in ohio

Tools for Success

  • Set realistic goals

  • Focus on their issues

  • Establish mini-milestones to celebrate

  • Give feedback and praise

  • Commit the needed resources to succeed


Community based watershed management in ohio

Tools for the Organization

  • Effective organizational by-laws

  • Efficient working structure

  • Good accounting and tax reporting practices

  • Annual strategic planning

  • Regular Board trainings

  • Continually cultivate a new workforce

  • Celebrate successes and hold social activities!


Tools on the internet

Tools on the Internet

  • Ohio State University Extension

    • Ohio Watershed Network(http://ohiowatersheds.osu.edu/)

    • Ohio Watershed Academy(http://ohiowatersheds.osu.edu/owa/)

      • 16 On-Line Modules to choose from

    • Ohioline Factsheets(http://ohioline.osu.edu/)

  • Ohio EPA

    • Ohio NPS Plan(http://www.epa.state.oh.us/dsw/nps/NPSMP/index.html)

  • Ohio Department of Natural Resources

    • Coastal NPS(http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/soilandwater/Coastalnonpointprogram.htm)


Tools on the internet1

Tools on the Internet

  • US EPA

    • National TMDL Program(http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/overviewfs.html)

    • National Watershed Program(http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/watershed/)


Community based watershed management in ohio

References

Beierle, T.C. and J. Cayford, 2002. “ Democracy in Practice: Public Participation in Environmental Decisions.” Resources for the Future: Washington, D.C.

Hungerford, H.R. and Volk, T.L. 1990. “Changing learner behavior through environmental education.” The Journal of Environmental Education. 21(3), 8-22.

Kenney, D.S. and W.B. Lord. 1999. “Analysis of Institutional Innovation in the Natural Resources and Environmental Realm: The Emergence of Alternative Problem Solving Strategies in the American West.” Research Report (RR-21). Natural Resources Law Center, University of Colorado School of Law: Boulder, CO.

MacPherson, C. and B. Tonning. “Getting in Step: Engaging and Involving Stakeholders in Your Watershed.” Tetra Tech, Inc.http://www.ttwater.com/downloads/StakeholdrGuide-All.pdf.

Steelman, T.A.. 1999. “Community-Based Environmental Management: Agency- and Community-Driven Efforts.” Presented at the 21st Annual Research Conference of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado: Boulder, CO.


Community based watershed management in ohio

  • Robert McCall

  • Watershed Management Educator

  • Ohio State University Extension

  • Center at Lima

  • 1219 West Main Cross

  • Suite 202

  • Findlay, OH 45840

  • 419-422-6106

  • [email protected]

  • Dana Oleskiewicz

  • Watershed Management Educator

  • Ohio State University Extension

  • Center at Wooster

  • 1680 Madison Avenue

  • OARDC Administration Building

  • Wooster, OH 44691

  • 330-263-3799

  • [email protected]


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