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The Gas Laws

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The Gas Laws

Physics 2053

Lecture Notes

The Gas Laws.ppt

Equation of State

Volume

(m3)

Pressure

(Pa)

Absolute

Temperature

(K)

PV = nRT

Gas Quantity

(mol)

Gas Constant

(8.31 J/molK)

The Gas Laws.ppt

Equation of State

Volume

(m3)

Pressure

(Pa)

PV = NkT

Absolute

Temperature

(K)

Number of

Molecules

Boltzmann’s

Constant

(1.38 x 10-23 J/K)

The Gas Laws.ppt

Boltzmann’s Constant

Gas

Constant

Avogadro’s

Number

The Gas Laws.ppt

Ideal Gas Law

A gas is contained in an 8.0 x 10-3 m3 vessel at 20 oC

and a pressure of 9.0 x 105 N/m2.

(a) Determine the number of moles of gas in the vessel.

The Gas Laws.ppt

A gas is contained in an 8.0 x 10-3 m3 vessel at 20 oC

and a pressure of 9.0 x 105 N/m2.

(b) How many molecules are in the vessel?

The Gas Laws.ppt

0.20 x 105 Pa

1.5 m3

27 oC

Problem

A cylinder with a moveable piston contains gas at a temperature of 27 oC, a volume of 1.5 m3, and an absolute pressure of 0.20 x 105 Pa.

The Gas Laws.ppt

Problem

0.20 x 105 Pa

0.80 x 105 Pa

What will be its final temperature if the gas is compressed to 0.70 m3 and the absolute pressure increases to 0.80 x 105 Pa?

1.5 m3

27 oC

0.70 m3

The Gas Laws.ppt

Molecular Kinetic Energy

Temperature is a measure of the average

molecular kinetic energy.

The Gas Laws.ppt

Kinetic energy

per molecule

Avogadro’s

number

Problem

What is the total random kinetic energy of all the

molecules in one mole of hydrogen at a temperature

of 300 K.

The Gas Laws.ppt

Problem

Calculate the rms speed of a Nitrogen molecule (N2)

when the temperature is 100 oC.

Mass of N2 molecule:

rms speed:

The Gas Laws.ppt

Problem

If 2.0 mol of an ideal gas are confined to a 5.0 L vessel at

a pressure of 8.0 x 105 Pa, what is the average kinetic

energy of a gas molecule?

Temperature of the gas:

Kinetic energy:

The Gas Laws.ppt

6

5

2

4

3

6

1

2

Mean and rms Speed

Mean Speed:

rms Speed:

The Gas Laws.ppt

The Gas Laws

END

The Gas Laws.ppt