Essentials of comparative linguistics
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ESSENTIALS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. Comparative Linguistics. phonetical. lexical. morphological, and syntactic. BRANCHES OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. synchronical. diachronical. ASPECTS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. PRACTICAL AIMS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS.

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ESSENTIALS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS

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Essentials of comparative linguistics

ESSENTIALS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS


Branches of comparative linguistics

Comparative Linguistics

phonetical

lexical

morphological, and syntactic

BRANCHES OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS


Aspects of comparative linguistics

COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS

synchronical

diachronical

ASPECTS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS


Practical aims of comparative linguistics

PRACTICAL AIMS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS

1) translation practice;

2) compiling dictionaries;

3) teaching foreign languages.


Methods of comparative linguistic research

SPECIFIC METHODS:

contrastive;

historical and comparative.

OTHER METHODS:

1) descriptive; 2) experimental; 3) statistic; 4) transformational; 5) substitutional; 6) intermediate and ultimate constituents analysis; 7) inductive (comparing language data on the ground of certain criteria); 8) deductive (working out criteria for comparison) methodology.

METHODS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTIC RESEARCH


Terminology of comparative linguistic research

TERMINOLOGY OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTIC RESEARCH

  • Language Universals

  • Language Type

  • Typological dominant features

  • Typological recessive features

  • Isomorphic (common) and allomorphic (divergent) features

  • Metalanguage

  • An Etalon Language

  • A World Language

  • Artificial Languages

  • Language Norm

  • Speech Norm


History of comparative linguistics

History of Comparative Linguistics

  • the end of the 18th century up to the middle of the 19th century, which is called the beginning of comparative research;

  • the end of the 19th century – the period of neogrammarian studies, when linguists started comparing living languages;

  • the beginning of the 20th century up to the present – the period of structural and functional approaches to language.


W von humboldt s classification of languages

W. vonHumboldt’s Classification of Languages

  • isolating (like Chinese);

  • agglutinative (like Turkish);

  • flexional (like Russian, Ukrainian);

  • incorporating (languages of American Indians).


Language classifications

LANGUAGE CLASSIFICATIONS


Number of speakers estimated statistics in the early 1980 s

Indo-European

Sino-Tibetan

Niger-Congo

Afro-Asiatic

Ausronesian

Dravidian

Japanese

Altaic

Austro-Asiatic

Korean

Tai

Nilo-Saharan

Amerindian

Uralic

2,000,000,000

1,040,000,000

260,000,000

230,000,000

200,000,000

140,000,000

120,000,000

90,000,000

60,000,000

50,000,000

50,000,000

30,000,000

25,000,000

23,000,000

NUMBER OF SPEAKERS(estimated statistics in the early 1980-s)


The indo european family

THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY

  • The Indo-Iranian Group

  • The Baltic Group

  • The Slavic Group

  • The Hellenic group

  • The Romance Group

  • The Germanic Group

  • The Celtic Group

  • The Albanian Language

  • The Armenian Language


The slavic languages

GROUPS

Western

Polish, Czech, Slovak, Sorbian, and Kashubian

Southern

Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, and Slovene

Eastern

Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian

THE SLAVIC LANGUAGES


The germanic languages

GROUPS

Western

English, German, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Yiddish, and Frisian

Northern

Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faeroese

Eastern

Gothic

(dead)

THE GERMANIC LANGUAGES


Table of typological features according to v skalichka

TABLE OF TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES(according to V. Skalichka)


Types of languages morphological classification

TYPES OF LANGUAGES(morphological classification)

  • agglutinative ;

  • inflecting (fusion);

  • isolating ;

  • polysynthetic;

  • introflexional (Arabic, Hebrew).


Agglutinative languages

Agglutinative Languages

Words are built up out of a long sequence of units, with each unit expressing a particular grammatical meaning, in a clear one-to-one way, e.g., one for each category of person, number, tense, voice, and mood. Affixes may be “glued” to the stem of word to add to its meaning or to show its grammatical function, e.g., in Swahiliwametulipa“they have paid us” consists of

wa + me + tu +lipa

they perfective us pay

marker

Languages which are highly agglutinative include Finnish, Hungarian, Japanese, Swahili, and Turkish, although there is no clear-cut distinction between agglutinative, inflecting, and isolating languages.


Inflecting fusion languages

Inflecting (fusion) Languages

The form of a word is changed to show a shift in meaning or grammatical function. Often there is no clear distinction between the basic part of the word and the part which shows a grammatical function such as number or tense. For e.g.: mice (= mouse + plural); came (= come + past tense). Greek, Latin, English, Russian, and Ukrainian are inflecting languages, though English is analytical, whereas other languages mentioned are synthetical (with more inflections and fewer auxiliaries).


Analytical synthetical languages

SYNTHETICAL LANGUAGES

Grammatical meaning is synthesized with the lexical one within the word form. Grammatical meaning is realized by means of inflections and word-forming affixes, sound interchange (ablaut), and suppletivity.

ANALYTICAL LANGUAGES

Lexical meaning is realized by notional words, while grammatical – by auxiliaries, word order, and intonation. Analytization is extremely intensive and is manifested in the functional synonymy of case-inflections, reduction of the noun-paradigm, word-order fixation, predominance of adjoinment in word-phrase relations, abundance of paradigmatic forms (Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous), predominance of conversion, postposition formation and phrasing among word-building patterns, abundance of function-words.

ANALYTICAL & SYNTHETICAL LANGUAGES


Isolating languages

Isolating Languages

They lack inflexions. Word forms do not change, and in which grammatical functions are shown by word order and the use of function words, e. g. in Mandarin Chinese:

júzi wõ chi le

orange I eat (function word)

“I ate the orange”

wõ chî le júzi le

I eat (f.w.) orange (f.w.)

“I ate an orange”

Languages, which are highly isolating include Chinese, Samoan, and Vietnamese.


Polysynthetic incorporating languages

Polysynthetic (Incorporating) Languages

Different parts of the utterance are united in the form of amorphous word-stems (roots). Their unity gets auxiliary elements. Compound words look like sentences. Words are very long, containing a mixture of agglutinative and inflectional features. In Tiwi ngirruunthingapukani (‘I kept on eating’) is:

ngi – rru – unthing – apu – kani

I past tense for some time eat repeatedly

Chukot, Eskimo, Papuan, and the languages of American Indians & Australian aborigines possess such features.


Syntactic classification of languauges i i meshchaninov s classification

SYNTACTIC CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAUGES(I. I. Meshchaninov’s classification)

1) passive;

2) nominative;

3) ergative .


Phonetic classification of languages o isachenko s classification

PHONETIC CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES(O. Isachenko’s Classification)

  • Vocalic Languages;

  • Consonantal Languages.


Language change

REASONS

INTERNAL

  • Democratic Society;

  • Learning;

  • Printing;

  • Mass media;

  • Language contacts.

EXTERNAL

  • Communication;

  • Expressive & information functions;

  • Language norm;

  • Language potential.

LANGUAGE CHANGE


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