ESSENTIALS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. Comparative Linguistics. phonetical. lexical. morphological, and syntactic. BRANCHES OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. synchronical. diachronical. ASPECTS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. PRACTICAL AIMS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS.
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ESSENTIALS OF COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS
morphological, and syntactic
1) translation practice;
2) compiling dictionaries;
3) teaching foreign languages.
historical and comparative.
1) descriptive; 2) experimental; 3) statistic; 4) transformational; 5) substitutional; 6) intermediate and ultimate constituents analysis; 7) inductive (comparing language data on the ground of certain criteria); 8) deductive (working out criteria for comparison) methodology.
Polish, Czech, Slovak, Sorbian, and Kashubian
Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, and Slovene
Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian
English, German, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Yiddish, and Frisian
Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faeroese
Words are built up out of a long sequence of units, with each unit expressing a particular grammatical meaning, in a clear one-to-one way, e.g., one for each category of person, number, tense, voice, and mood. Affixes may be “glued” to the stem of word to add to its meaning or to show its grammatical function, e.g., in Swahiliwametulipa“they have paid us” consists of
wa + me + tu +lipa
they perfective us pay
Languages which are highly agglutinative include Finnish, Hungarian, Japanese, Swahili, and Turkish, although there is no clear-cut distinction between agglutinative, inflecting, and isolating languages.
The form of a word is changed to show a shift in meaning or grammatical function. Often there is no clear distinction between the basic part of the word and the part which shows a grammatical function such as number or tense. For e.g.: mice (= mouse + plural); came (= come + past tense). Greek, Latin, English, Russian, and Ukrainian are inflecting languages, though English is analytical, whereas other languages mentioned are synthetical (with more inflections and fewer auxiliaries).
Grammatical meaning is synthesized with the lexical one within the word form. Grammatical meaning is realized by means of inflections and word-forming affixes, sound interchange (ablaut), and suppletivity.
Lexical meaning is realized by notional words, while grammatical – by auxiliaries, word order, and intonation. Analytization is extremely intensive and is manifested in the functional synonymy of case-inflections, reduction of the noun-paradigm, word-order fixation, predominance of adjoinment in word-phrase relations, abundance of paradigmatic forms (Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous), predominance of conversion, postposition formation and phrasing among word-building patterns, abundance of function-words.
They lack inflexions. Word forms do not change, and in which grammatical functions are shown by word order and the use of function words, e. g. in Mandarin Chinese:
júzi wõ chi le
orange I eat (function word)
“I ate the orange”
wõ chî le júzi le
I eat (f.w.) orange (f.w.)
“I ate an orange”
Languages, which are highly isolating include Chinese, Samoan, and Vietnamese.
Different parts of the utterance are united in the form of amorphous word-stems (roots). Their unity gets auxiliary elements. Compound words look like sentences. Words are very long, containing a mixture of agglutinative and inflectional features. In Tiwi ngirruunthingapukani (‘I kept on eating’) is:
ngi – rru – unthing – apu – kani
I past tense for some time eat repeatedly
Chukot, Eskimo, Papuan, and the languages of American Indians & Australian aborigines possess such features.
3) ergative .