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การวิเคราะห์บทบาทความสำคัญของการจัดการเทคโนโลยีที่มีต่อศักยภาพของการแข่งขันและความอยู่รอด PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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การวิเคราะห์บทบาทความสำคัญของการจัดการเทคโนโลยีที่มีต่อศักยภาพของการแข่งขันและความอยู่รอด ท่ามกลางกระแสโลกาภิวัฒน์ที่มีการเปลี่ยนแปลงอย่างต่อเนื่องของเทคโนโลยี. Economic Development. TECHNOLOGY . HOW did we get to the era of industrialization?. WWII. Development of Technology.

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Economic development

Economic Development


Technology

TECHNOLOGY


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HOW did we get to the era of industrialization?


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WWII


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Development of Technology

1800 1860 1910 19602000 20XX

  • 1800: Stream engine & Textile Industry

  • 1860: Steel & Ironmongery

  • 1910: Electrotechnics& Chemistry

  • 1960: Automotive & Petrochemistry

  • 2000: Information Technology

  • 20XX: ???

Biotechnology & Nanotechnology

Source: 1. Leo A. Nefiodow: Der sechste Kondratieff - Wege der Produktivitt und Vollbeschftigung im Zeitalter der Information


The long wave cycle

The Long Wave Cycle

Betz suggests the following sequence for the long wave process:

  • Discoveries in Science create phenomenal base for technological innovation

  • Radical and basic technology innovation creates new products

  • These products create new markets and new industries

  • The new industries continue to innovate in products and process, expanding markets

  • As the technology matures, many competitors enter internationally, eventually creating excess production capacity

  • Excess capacity decreases profitability and increases business failures and unemployment

  • Subsequent economic turmoil in financial markets may lead to depressions

  • New Science and Technology may provide the basis for new economic expansion


Definition of technology

Definition of Technology

Technology is in its purest essence, knowledge-knowledge to solve our problems and pursue our goals.

Technological Innovation is thus the creation of new knowledge that is applied to practical problems.


What is technology

What is Technology?

  • All knowledge, products, processes, tools, methods, and systems employed in the creation of goods or in providing services

  • The way we do things

  • Practical implementation of knowledge

  • Hardware, machine, computer ???

  • Should includes software, human skills


Technology1

TECHNOLOGY

Research

Invent

Commercialise

Market

Economy

Utility

Science

Technology

Nature

Use

nature

Embed

nature

Exist

naturally

Discover

nature

Manipulate

nature

The World as Material

The World as Money

Source : Betz, F. (2011), Managing Technological Innovation : Competitive Advantage from Change, John Wiley & Sons


The evolution of product technology

The Evolution of Product Technology

  • Technology can be associated with products, production, service or marketing

  • Product innovations lately effect the people live and work

  • Technologies converted into products contributed to economic growth and prosperity and improve overall quality of life

  • From power generation to steam power, radio signal, electric power generation, telephone, air conditioner, automobile, airplane, television, jet engine, copy machine computer, spaceship, laser, satellites, composite material, fiber optic, MRI scanner, new drugs, software, telecom, genetically engineered products


Technology and sustainable growth

Technology and Sustainable Growth

Technological Capabilities

Economic System

Trade

Competitive Enterprise

Sustainable Economic Growth


Spinning out technology

Spinning out Technology

Society needs

Market

needs

Technology conversion

Technology creation or acquisition

Production

The Customer

Standard of living,

social and environmental issues


Factors contributing to wealth creation

Factors Contributing to Wealth Creation

Technology

Labor

Wealth Creation

Capital

Natural Resource

Public and Environmental Policy

Market


Technological innovation and economy

Technological Innovation and Economy

  • Innovation is becoming a core in national economic policy

    • UK office of Science and Innovation sees innovation as the motor of the modern economy, turning ideas and knowledge into products and services. (Department of Trade and Industry (2003) Competing in the Global Economy: The Innovation Challenge, Department of Trade and Industry, London)

  • Statistics Canada : SMEs

    • Innovation is consistently found to be the most important characteristic associated with success.

    • Innovation enterprises typically achieve stronger growth or are more successful than those that do not innovate.

    • Enterprise that gain market share and increasing profitability are those that are innovate.

  • In Japan Gross Domestic Product :

    • From 1971 to 2003

    • GDP economy increasing and innovation


Innovation

INNOVATION


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Technological Advancement

and

Economic Development


Mot and competitiveness

MOT and Competitiveness

  • MOT play a major role in creating and maintain competitiveness in the global arena

  • MOT activity are undertaken at national, international, macro, micro level

  • At Macro Level, the country must be able to:

    • Create an economic growth policy, technology policy is a major contributor to the economic strength

    • Provide infrastructure to support and facilitate enterprises

    • Planning for HR development as a part of technology development

    • Encourage cooperation between government, industry and education and research institutions

    • Energize and support technological innovation and develop plan to enhance creativity and support R&D activities

    • Issue legislation and regulation to protect environment and strengthen social structure


Mot and competitiveness1

MOT and Competitiveness

  • The scale of domestic markets and openness of global market

  • The ability to continually modernize plant and equipment in industry

  • Collaboration between industry and university and government

  • National saving and the level of industrial investment

  • National Policy supports to enhance adoption, adaptation, diffusion of technology and know-how

  • The development of the human, physical, financial, regulatory and institutional infrastructure to attract the investment

  • Public support of generic and domestically developed technologies


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MEASURING GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS


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142 Nations


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World Competitive Ranking


Technology and national economy

Technology and National Economy

  • Developed economies are identified with countries that properly use technology for the creation of wealth

  • It is not the technology itself that creates the wealth, rather, it is the appropriate and effective use of it

  • Proper management of all low or medium level technology can still create a certain competitive advantage and be effectively used for wealth creation


Mot and competitiveness2

MOT and Competitiveness

  • The Comparative strength of a nations technical enterprise depend on:

    • The strength of the national research enterprises

    • The quality of technical education

    • The presence of a large pool of technical talents

    • The strength of information technology infrastructure

    • The ability to cultivate individual creativity and initiative

    • Synergy between basic research and downstream technical activity such as design and production


Science technology and innovation

Science, Technology and Innovation

Source : Tidd,J. and Bessan, J. (2009), Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change, p. 15, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Thomas Alva Edison (registered over 1000 patents)

    • Products including light bulb, 33 mm cinema film electric chair.

    • Making inventions work technically and commerically

    • He created a business empire worth 21.6billion in 1920.

    • He really use an understanding of the interactive nature of innovation, realizing that both technology push (which he systematized in one of the worlds first organized R&D laboratories) and demand pull need to be mobilized.


New scientific and business knowledge

New Scientific and Business Knowledge

  • Superglue 1951

    • A young chemist discovered the sticky substance when he was charged with finding a clear plastic that could be used to cast precision gun sights.

    • Chemical compound that stuck together

    • Then several years later; working on an adhesive for jet plane canopies. A fortuitous mistake in the lab led to his team of sciencetisrealising they had a super sticky adhesive.

    • During Vietnam War, Superglue were used to stop soldiers from bleeding out before they could get more medical attention.

    • A few decade later, superglue has become consumer products

      Source: Sheppard, B. et al. (2006), Leading from the center: Discovering creative solutions to everyday challenges, Dearborn Trade Publishing A Kaplan Professional Company.


Industrial clusters

INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS


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Nauwelaers, 2003


National system of innovation

National System of Innovation


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A generic national innovation system (Arnold, E., Kuhlman, S, 2001, RCN in the Norwegian Research and Innovation System. Available at www.technopolis-group.com)


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The need to tailor packages of support to different types of companies


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R&D

Policy

Education

Policy

Financial and Fiscal policy

Employment Policy

Macroeconomic Policy

Industry

Policy

Competition Policy

Generic

Sectoral

Regional Development Policy

Trade

Policy

Defence

Policy

Environment Policy

Consumer Protection

Policy

Health and

Safety Policy

Direct policy impacts on R&D domain

R&D

Domain

R&D

Domain

Direct policy impacts on other domains

Indirect policy impacts on R&D and other domains

External influences on all domains

Human Capital

Domain

Finance

Domain

Other Key

Domains

Innovation

Domain

Innovation

Policy

Linkage

Policy

IPR

Policy

External

influence

External

influence

External

influence

External

influence

R&D domain: public and private R&D performers, e.g. universities, research institutes, government labs, high tech SMEs, large firms etc.

Other key domains: e.g. private sector firms (Innovation domain); financial institutions (Finance domain); educational establishments (Human Capital domain)

Source: Policy mix project, European Commission. http://rid.intrasoft-intl.com/PolicyMix/index.cfm


National innovation systems in emerging markets

National Innovation Systems in Emerging Markets

  • South Korea and Taiwan:

    - 50 years ago both were poor countries

    - Their governments promoted research and technology setting up important university research institutes

    - Firms were encouraged to do R&D

    - Initial approach was reverse engineering and technology transfer from the rich world

    - Later graduated to developing world class innovations

  • China and India:

    - Began with large populations but small % highly educated

    - China has encouraged FDI and technology transfer

    - India less open, but in 1990s expanded higher education

    - Indian firms have focused on pharmaceuticals and software


Finding prosperity the innovation economy

Finding Prosperity : The Innovation Economy


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Experience

Feature

Quality

Customer Value

Function

Economic Development


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INNOVATION & DAILY LIFE


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INNOVATION & DAILY LIFE


Business objective of product process innovation

Business Objective of Product & Process Innovation

  • Improve product quality

  • Increase market shares

  • Fulfill regulations and standards

  • Reduce environmental effects

  • Learn about new technologies

  • Reduce production cost/ improve yield

  • Improve production flexibility, cycle time, work condition


How to drive organisation development under dynamic change and fierce competition

How to drive organisation development under dynamic change and fierce competition?

  • Understand Business Process

    • Understand Business Competitiveness

    • Understand Business Process

    • Understand Measurements

  • Understand Strategic Management

    • Understand the term Strategic Direction

    • Understand Strategic Management Process

  • Understand Technology and Innovation

    • Understand the concept and the importance of technology and innovation

    • Understand the way to create innovation in an organisation


What does business do

WHAT does business do?


The organisation level and decision making flow

The Organisation Level and Decision Making Flow


Production process

Production Process

Outcome

Productivity Measurement

Efficiency Measurement

Effectiveness Measurement


Business strategic management

Business Strategic Management

Strategic planning is a management tool, period. As with any management tool, it is used for one purpose only: to help an organization do a better job - to focus its energy, to ensure that members of the organization are working toward the same goals, to assess and adjust the organization's direction in response to a changing environment. In short, strategic planning is a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it, with a focus on the future.


Strategic management

Strategic Management

Vision

Mission


Primary business concept for innovation management

Primary Business Concept for Innovation Management

Business Strategic Management

Value Chain

Process and Measurement

Strategy Map

Balanced Scorecard


Value chain

Value Chain

Firm Infrastructure

Human Resource Management

Supportive

Activities

Technical Development

Profit

Margin

Procurement

Primary

Activities


Organisation value chain

Organisation : Value Chain

Source: Porter and Kramer (2006), Strategy and Society : the link between competitive advantage and

corporate social responsibility, Harvard Business Review.


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IT SYSTEM

Layout & Location

Advantage

High

Traffic

Real-Time

Service

Customer

Needs

Analysis

Modern Practice

Design

Efficient

Manufacturing

Practice

Strategy Formulation

(2548-2551)

Ample

Car parking

4

Vision

S

W

O

T

Strategic Issue

Goal

(KPI / target)

Strategies

Strategic Control

Strategy Implementation

Action Plan

Strategic Management Process

Risk Assessment & Management

Structure

Process/IT

Limited

Labour

Rule &

Regulation

People/

Culture

Alignment

Blueprint for Change

Ample

Inventory

On Side

Ease of

Transport

Assembly

Supplier

Relationship&

Bargaining

Power

Knock

Down

Packaging

fin

. Traffic

Eye-Catching

cust

Fashion

Brand

.

Merchandise

int

Facilities and services

Safety

100%

Outsource

Design-easy

to-produce

Variety

of

Produce

Management team

L&G

Technology

/

IT

(Strategic Formulation)

SWOT Analysis

System

Activities

Business Model

Risk Mgt.

Benchmarking

Balanced

Scorecard

Strategy

Map

Rewards

KPI


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Strategy Formulation

(2548-2551)

4

Vision

S

W

O

T

Strategic Issue

Goal

(KPI / target)

Strategies

Strategic Control

Strategy Implementation

Action Plan

Strategic Management Process

Risk Assessment & Management

Structure

Process/IT

Rule &

Regulation

People/

Culture

Alignment

Blueprint for Change

process

redesign

capacity

building

(Strategic Implementation)....

Action Plan

Initiatives

Budget

Gap!!

Gap!!

Individual Scorecard

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

(Risk Management)

()

()

()

/

/

//


Measurements

Measurements


Performance measurement

Performance Measurement

  • Time and Performance were used to define a particular market application in which customers purchase and use a product or service.

  • Benchmarking

  • Productivity

  • Key Performance Indicators

    • Output

    • Outcome


Organisation and innovation

Organisation and Innovation

Competitors

Competitors

Products/Services

Products/Services

Customers

Organisation

Technology

Innovation

Creativity

Customers

Process

Products/

Services

Customers

Incremental

Radical


Cycle of technology development

Cycle of Technology Development


External and internal strategic interactions

External and Internal Strategic Interactions

Politics

Laws and Public Policy

Suppliers

Other Societal and Public Groups

External Sources and New Technology

Technology and Innovation Strategy

Outputs for Customers

Stockholders

Competitors

Data and Information

Firm Dominant Logic

Organisational Structure

People and Capabilities

Processes, Procedures, and System

Competitive Position

Information Processing and Knowledge Management


Business strategy and technology strategy

Business Strategy and Technology Strategy

Vision:

3M : Be innovative and satisfy our customer

Microsoft: Information at your fingertips

GE : To be Number one or two in every business

Oracle: Enabling the information age


Technology planning

Technology Planning

Technological Knowledge

Market Knowledge

Side-Ways

Marketing Services

Side-Ways

Production

Longer-Term

Shorter-Term


Strategic management1

Strategic Management

  • Strategic Formulation

    • Corporate

      • Culture, beliefs, leadership, structure, organisation behaviour

      • Strategic Planning : Vision, Mission,

  • Strategic Implementation

    • Change Management

  • Strategic Evaluation

    • Key Performance Indicators : Share Price, Sales, Profits, Patents, Benchmarking


Operational excellence and innovation

Operational Excellence and Innovation

R&D SUPPORT


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CHANGE HAS only BEEN INITIATED since 1980s


Organisational perspective

Organisational Perspective

Future Directions

Technology and Innovation

Better Performance

Better Products and Services

Suitable Product/Service Development

Necessary implementation system

Tangible/Intangible Asset Development


Business competence and core products

Business Competence and Core Products

  • Core competencies manifest themselves in core products that serve as a link between the competencies and end products. Core products enable value creation in the end products.

    • 3 M substrates, coatings, and adhesives.

    • Black&Decker small electric motors

    • Canon laser printer subsystem

    • Matsushita VCR subsystem, compressors

    • Hondo gasoline powered engines


Operations management

Operations Management

Business Strategy

Markets and Customer Demands

Output

Input

Process

Materials

Products

Distributors

Suppliers1 Tier

Suppliers

2 Tier

Retailers

Suppliers

3 Tier

Customers


Internal innovation planning

Internal Innovation Planning

Organisation : Internal Innovation Strategic Planning

Financial Department

R&D Department

Project Portfolio

New Product Development Project

New Product Development Project

New Product Development Project


Chief technology officer

Chief Technology Officer

Do we need technology to support our organisations?

What innovation can do for our organisations?

What is the role of Chief Technology Officer?

What do we have to know about technological innovation?


Business internal innovation planning

Business Internal Innovation Planning

A clear vision that firm focuses on innovation

Employee receive the option of spending up to 15 percent of their time each week on projects of their choice.

Seed money is provided for individuals or groups as they move beyond the idea stage.

Six or seven percent of revenues are spent on R&D each year.

The compensation system also includes bonuses based on unit performance.


Canon

Canon

In 1982, Canon developed the worlds first all-in-one toner cartridge for copying machines, dramatically reducing the need for nationwide support and maintenance networks. The technology combined not only the consumables but also Canons proprietary technologies, which meant that the companys intellectual property and its profitability were both embedded in the cartridge.

In 1990, Canon launched a super-compact inkjet printer that combined the ink tank and the print head in a single disposable unit to make the body of the product inexpensive. However, this resulted in high running costs, earning Canon large profits from the disposable units. In 1993, Epson launched the MJ-500, which reduced running costs by separating the ink tank and print head, in contrast with Canons strategy.

In response, Canon adopted and patented designs that enabled then to flexibly shift added value between the printer body and the cartridge. The running costs for Canon printers therefore do not follow a consistent trend over time, bucking the general trend of consistently increasing running costs.

In conclusion, the case of Canon shows how variation in architecture design can determine a companys profit profile, so that it is able to meet the competitive conditions in its market while keeping its profitability robust. Implementing innovations is unquestionably important, but simply having strong technologies does not guarantee high profitability.


Disruptive strategies and companies cases

Disruptive Strategies and Companies Cases

  • Dell Computer Retailer : Gateway (What about newcomers?)

  • AMAZON.com : 1995 Amazon.com and UPS

    • Increase customers satisfaction and decreasing goals

  • IBM and Kodak 1970s and 1980s to beat XEROX in high speed photocopier business : XEROX sustaining technology but then CANNON disruptive tebletop copier strategy.

    • Until the early 1908s, when people needed phothocopies, they had to take their originals to the corporate photocopy center, where a technician ran the job for them. He had to be a technician, because the high-speed Xerox machine there was very complicated and needed servicing frequently.


Business internal innovation planning1

Business Internal Innovation Planning

Strategic goal : Intelligent Vehicle Initiative ideal driver

Six research areas: chemical and environment electrical and controls integration, manufacturing systems, materials, power train, and vehicle development. (Different goals and separate facilities)

Forward radar sensor, forward vision system, in-vehicle sensors, global positioning system.


Vision technology and timing

Vision, Technology and Timing

AVON : Distribution System

Serena Software : using Facebook as its main source of internal communication.

Coca-Cola : portable device shift in demand, problem encounter


Vision technology and timing1

Vision, Technology and Timing

Intel/Qualcomm : Creating products for portables that pack more capability on a single slice of silicon reducing power consumption

Nokia/Research in Motion: racing to come out with products aimed at business users that have all the ease of use of the iPhone.


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Environmentalist - Business Person - Technologist


Bee product industry

BEE PRODUCT INDUSTRY


What is tech roadmapping

What is Tech Roadmapping?

  • Trends -- Statement of historic performance improvement and extrapolations into future

  • Consensus Shared opinion about likely future developments

  • Commitment -- Shared willingness to pursue particular technologies

  • Co-Investment -- Basis for agreement on pre-competitive research funding

  • Understanding -- Method of understanding broader socio-economic context of broad technology trends


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Roadmapping & other management tools / approaches

STEEPI

(Social, Technological,

Economic, Environmental,

Political, Infrastructural

Trends & Drivers)

Foresight

Technology Intelligence

Porters

Five Forces

SWOT

(Strengths,

Weaknesses,

Opportunities,

Threats)

t

Scenario

Market

Business

Product

Service

System

Technology

Resources

Innovation

System

Structure

(taxonomy)

Scaleable

(hierarchy)

Valuation /

Balanced scorecard

Portfolio

Linking

grids


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Identify future of market sectors A & B and key application

Establish contacts with key consumer groups

Establish contacts with key stakeholder groups 1, 2 & 3

Market

Survey customers for their requirements

Communicate strategy (shareholders)

Business

Resource planning

IT strategy

Product

Agree and communicate strategy

Identify resource requirements and start recruitment and training

Focussed review of informatics & formulation resource needs (people/facilities)

Communicate market knowledge

Review project portfolio - focus on critical few (matching market / stop doing some things)

Generate key technology strategy and timeline

Develop knowledge management tools

Technology

Establish R&D organisation

Clarify roles and relationships S&T/R&D/Advanced Services/Man Tech

Develop organisation objectives / vision metrics

Succession management

Develop and implement skills

Design, train and implement culture change

Organisation


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Time

M 1

M 2

Market

P 1

P 2

P 3

Product

P 4

T 1

T 2

Technology

T 3

T 4

RD 1

RD 2

RD 4

RD 6

R&D

programmes

RD 3

RD 5

Capital investment / finance

Supply chain

Resources

Staff / skills

Roadmapping - Planning for the Future


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Year

1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

Tuning

Push button

Push button - Synthesizers

Touch pad - Synthesizers

Voice actuated

Selectivity

Ceramic resonators

SAWs

Digital signal processors

Stereo

Paging

Data

Maps

Subcarrier function

IC technology

Linear

5u CMOS

3u CMOS

1u CMOS

Display

LEDs

Liquid crystal

Fluorescence

Vehicular LAN

Single wire

Glass fibre

Digital modulation

500 kHz bandwidth

RECEIVER 1

RECEIVER 2

RECEIVER 3

NEXT GENERATION

FUTURE GENERATION

PRODUCTS

Plus:

A NEW SERVICE

Stereo

Plus:

Plus:

Stock market

Scan

Personal

Road information

Super Hi Fi

paging

Remote

Seek

amplifiers

Local maps

Remote controls

Roadmapping vs. strategic planning process

Process funnel (e.g. strategy, new product development)

Requirements fluid

Concepts fuzzy

Many unknowns

Many options

Many assumptions

Few constraints

Scenarios

Requirements clear, stable

Concepts clear, stable

Fewer unknowns, risks understood

Fewer options, greater constraints

Time, effort, iteration

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

Divergent process

Convergent process


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Time

M 1

M 2

Market

P 1

P 2

P 3

Product

P 4

T 1

T 2

Technology

T 3

T 4

RD 1

RD 2

RD 4

RD 6

R&D

programmes

RD 3

RD 5

Capital investment / finance

Supply chain

Resources

Staff / skills

Roadmapping - Links future to present

Where are

we now?

How can

we get

there?

Where do

we want

to go?


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Fast-start

Generalisation

Customisation

Cambridge

1997

Motorola develops

technology

roadmapping

approach

Take up in

electronics

sector,

defence

and

aerospace

Semiconductor

Technology Roadmap

Roadmapping

approach

supports

integrated

strategic

planning

Take up in

other sectors

- companies

- consortia

- government

Forecasting

Policy

Foresight

Science fiction

Futures & Scenario planning

Evolution of technology roadmapping

1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

Strategic

planning

Co-evolution


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Short term

Medium term

Long term

New (?):

- Markets

- Products

- Technologies

- Capabilities

- Organisational structures

- Distribution channels

- Competition

Uncertainty / risk of

prediction / investment

Time

Operations

Innovation

Strategy

What to manufacture?

How many of each model?

What materials to order?

Which products?

Which markets?

What cost?

Which technologies?

qualitative focus

quantitative focus

Time is a key dimension


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Technology roadmapping process

Benefits

  • Facilitate the integration of new technology into the business

  • Support for company strategy and planning processes

  • Identify new business opportunities for exploiting technology

  • Provide top level information on the technological direction of the

  • business

  • Support communication and co-operation within the business

  • Identify gaps in market and technical knowledge

  • Support sourcing decisions, resource allocation, risk management

  • and exploitation decisions

  • High-level integrated planning and control

  • - a common reference / framework


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