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Children. Santrock. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. Child Development – Yesterday and Today. Tabula rasa – Locke – Children are born as blank slates – childhood experiences are therefore important. Original sin – Children are basically bad – rearing must provide salvation.

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Children

Santrock

chapter 1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

child development yesterday and today
Child Development – Yesterday and Today
  • Tabula rasa – Locke – Children are born as blank slates – childhood experiences are therefore important.
  • Original sin – Children are basically bad – rearing must provide salvation.
  • Innate goodness – Rousseau – Children are inherently good – should grow naturally.

Historical Accounts of Children – once treated as miniature adults – many views on how they should be reared.

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Improving the Lives of Today’s Children – Many factors converge to improve the lives of childrenHealth and Well-Being – Lifestyles and psychological states promote health and well-being and the impetus of caring for the child is not in the hands of physician, but those of the caregivers. Families and Parenting – Changing family patterns, more working parents, increased use of day care facilities all contribute to impacting the development of the child. Education – Parents are taking a greater role in the formal education of their children, asking questions about curriculum, testing, safety in schools, and qualifications of teachers.

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Culture and Ethnicity – The Tapestry of our society has become more diverse, but minorities are still more likely to live in poverty, and their children are more likely to be dropouts. The diversity of ethnic groups within themselves has also increased.Context – the setting influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.Culture – behavior patterns and beliefs passed on to succeeding generations.Cross-cultural studies – comparing one culture with another to determine the degree of development in all children.Ethnicity – cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language – ethnic identity is a sense of membership in that cultural heritage.Gender – The sociocultural dimension that surrounds gender stimulates interesting questions of what is or is not appropriate.

social policy and children s development

Social Policy and Children’s Development

The ideology, background, values, and political needs of legislators often shapes the social policy related to child development. Interest groups such as Children’s Defense Fund constantly strive to push for a social policy that benefits children.

the nature of development

THE NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT

Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes:

These processes focus on the nature of physical, intellectual, linguistic, social, and emotional development in the child.

periods of development
Periods of Development
  • Prenatal – conception to birth
  • Infancy – birth to 18/24 months
  • Early childhood – end of infancy to 5/6 years
  • Middle and late childhood – 6 to 11 years
  • Adolescence – 10/12 years to 18/22 years
developmental issues
Developmental Issues
  • Nature vs. nurture – from biological to environmental influence
  • Continuity and discontinuity – the degree of gradual, cumulative change to distinct change in development
  • Early and late experience – the degree that early and later experiences influence the child’s development. Culture plays an important role in these determinants.
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