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Laura Gilchrist English Language Arts Coordinator Joint School District No. 2. Too Dumb for Hard Text?. First Things First. Appointment Book: Find four people you will meet with throughout the session to discuss your thoughts about specific topics. Write down names.

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laura gilchrist english language arts coordinator joint school district no 2
Laura Gilchrist

English Language Arts Coordinator

Joint School District No. 2

Too Dumb for Hard Text?

first things first
First Things First
  • Appointment Book: Find four people you will meet with throughout the session to discuss your thoughts about specific topics. Write down names.
ascd article feb 2011
ASCD Article, Feb., 2011

“Too Dumb for Complex Texts?” by Mark Bauerlein, ASCD, Feb. 2011, Vol. 68, 5.

Bauerlein posits:“The primary cause of unreadiness [for college] is the inability [of students] to grasp complex text.”

bauerlein further asserts
Bauerlein further asserts:
  • For teenagers who send up to 3,000 text messages per month and who spend their entire school day surrounded by the tools of acceleration, decelerating their reading when complex texts come up in class becomes nearly impossible.
what is complex text
What is Complex Text?

Let’s define it:

what is complex text1
What is Complex Text?
  • Bauerlein defines complex text as ”works characterized by dense meanings, elaborate structure, sophisticated vocabulary, and subtle authorial intentions” such as “a US Supreme Court Decision, an epic poem, or ethical treatise.”
common core ela appendix b
Common Core ELA Appendix B
  • Exemplar Informational Text for Grade 11-12
  • Title: THE COST CONUNDRUM.
  • Authors: Gawande, Atul
  • Source: New Yorker; 6/1/2009, Vol. 85 Issue 16, p36-44, 9p, 1 Color Photograph
  • Document Type: Article

Accessible through EBSCO, library database

provided by LiLI(Libraries Linking Idaho)

do you agree or disagree why meet with your 9 00 and discuss
Do You Agree or Disagree? Why? Meet with your 9:00 and discuss
  • When teachers fill the syllabus with digital texts, having students read and write blogs...multimedia assemblages, and the like, they do little to address the primary reason that so many students end up not ready for college-level reading.
do you agree or disagree why meet with your 9 30 and discuss
Do You Agree or Disagree? Why?Meet with your 9:30 and discuss.
  • When teachers assign traditional texts—novels, speeches, science articles, and so on—in digital format with embedded links, hypertext, word-search capability, and other aids, they likewise avoid the primary cause of unreadiness.
six assumptions about learning
Six Assumptions About Learning

Learning is:

  • Goal-oriented
  • The linking of new information to prior knowledge
  • The organization of information
  • The acquisition of cognitive and meta-cognitive structures
  • Nonlinear, yet occurring in phases
  • Influenced by cognitive development

Billmeyer, R. & Barton, M.L. (2002). Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If not Me, Then Who? Alexandria: ASCD

making learning goal oriented
Making Learning Goal-Oriented
  • Teach students to set goals and then ask them to reflect regularly on them
  • Set Purposes: Tell students why they are reading and what they should pay attention to while they read
  • Have students determine if they met the purpose for reading and explain how (metacognition)
linking the new to the known building background knowledge
Linking the New to the Known(Building Background Knowledge)
  • Students come to us with their own background knowledge and experiences (called schemata)
  • The reader constructs meaning based on connecting new information to what he/she already knows
example of schemata
Example of Schemata

The questions that p_______ face as they raise

ch________ from in_________ to adult life are

not easy to answer. Both f______ and m______

can become concerned when health problems

such as co________ arise any time after the

e________ stage to later life. Experts

recommend that young ch_________ should

have plenty of s_________ and nutritious food

for healthy growth. B_________ and g______

should not share the same b________ or even

sleep in the same r__________. They may be

afraid of the d_________.

Source: Billmeyer and Barton 2002, adapted from Madeline Hunter

example of schemata1
Example of Schemata

The questions that poultrymen face as they raise

chickens from incubation to adult life are

not easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants

can become concerned when health problems

such as coccidiosis arise any time after the

Egg stage to later life. Experts recommend that

young chicks should have plenty of sunshine

and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties

and geese should not share the same barnyard

or even sleep in the same roost. They may be

afraid of the dark.

Source: Billmeyer and Barton 2002, adapted from Madeline Hunter

ways to build background knowledge
Ways to Build Background Knowledge
  • Anticipation Guides (could use clickers so entire class can see thinking)
  • K-W-L-Plus
  • Prereading Plan
  • Making Prereading Predictions
  • Vocabulary Self Assessment
  • Interactive Notes
  • If students just take notes, the overall effect of act is less than if they actually do something with the notes! Notes alone are not super-effective. Discussion helps address misconceptions.
prereading plan langer 1981
Prereading Plan (Langer, 1981)
  • Identify the central concept and introduce to students (What comes to mind when. . “)
  • Students individually write all associations and then share onto composite list
  • Students reflect on why each association was made
  • Conclude activity by saying, “As a result of our discussion, can you think of any other information you know about this topic?”

Billmeyer, R. & Barton, M.L. (2002). Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If not Me, Then Who? Alexandria: ASCD

let s try it
Let’s Try it:
  • What comes to mind when you hear the phrase, “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.”
  • Write down your thoughts. . .
meet with your 10 00 to share your thoughts
Meet with your 10:00 to share your thoughts.
  • Meet with your 10:00 to share your thoughts.
  • Let’s generate a group list. . .
  • “As a result of our discussion, can you think of any other information you know about this topic?”
  • Extend Further: What questions did you think of when you first heard the quote?
how to extend using digital tools
How to Extend using Digital Tools:
  • Students can respond digitally
    • Prereading guides don’t have to be printed!
  • Share compiled lists on class wiki
  • Assign groups of students to be in charge of posting summaries of class discussion
  • Revisit lists after learning
interactive notes
Interactive Notes

Burke, J. (2002). Tools for Thought. Heinemann: Portsmouth.

organizing information
Organizing Information
  • Remember this?

When teachers assign traditional texts—novels, speeches, science articles, and so on—in digital format with embedded links, hypertext, word-search capability, and other aids, they likewise avoid the primary cause of unreadiness.

organizing information1
Organizing Information
  • Digital formats do not excuse students from deep reading
  • Teachers can teach reading strategies for digital text.
    • Have students to read without accessing links (except for dictionary tools)
    • Design activities around exploring hyperlinks—how do they relate to the text? If they don’t why not?
    • Have students reread
    • Have students reread
organizing information2
Organizing Information
  • Digital formats do not excuse students from deep reading
  • Teachers can teach reading strategies for digital text.
    • Utilize tools available such as highlighting or creating note taking template to support reading
      • Reader response
      • Concept Definition
      • Proposition/Support Outline
      • PowerPoint
proposition support
Proposition/Support

Billmeyer, R. & Barton, M.L. (2002). Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If not Me, Then Who? Alexandria: ASCD

have students use ppt to organize information
Have Students Use PPT to Organize Information
  • If students have access to PowerPoint they can use the smart art tool to create graphic organizers
have students use ppt to organize information1
Have Students Use PPT to Organize Information

Yes, this is a very SIMPLE example. . .

slide29

Insert -> Smart Art -> Choose Graphic Organizer ->Fill in the blanks

  • Model first, then practice with students before independent practice
  • Students should be able to eventually choose the tool that matches the appropriate graphic (cycle, list, hierarchy, etc.)
developing cognitive and metacognitive structures
Developing Cognitive and Metacognitive Structures
  • Having students reflect as they read and after they read is very important
  • If students just take notes, the overall effect of act is less than if they actually do something with the notes
  • Notes alone are not super-effective
developing cognitive and metacognitive structures1
Developing Cognitive and Metacognitive Structures
  • Students need to know specific strategies as well as how and when to use them
  • All teachers must be content teachers and “learner” teachers in that they help students learn strategies and how/when to implement them
strategy instruction as differentiation
Strategy Instruction as Differentiation
  • Students need to be taught specific strategies
  • If a student already utilizes an effective content area reading strategy, don’t make him/her change to an unfamiliar one
  • Practice and ask students to evaluate use
  • Digitize
developing non linear thinking
Developing Non-Linear Thinking

Researchers believe that learning occurs in three phases that are non-linear:

  • Pre-active thought or preparing for learning
  • Interactive though or processing that occurs during the actual learning
  • Reflective thought to integrate, extend, refine and apply what has been learned

Costa and Garmston, 1994, Buehl, 1995,

implications for education
Implications for Education
  • Increasingly, purchasing texts (printed or electronic) are delayed because of lack of funding. . . Yet text demands are growing
  • Students will be accessing digital text
  • We need to support students to read digital text successfully
meet with your 10 30 appointment
Meet with your 10:30 appointment
  • Do agree with Bauerline’s statement? Why or why not:

“The more high school teachers place complex texts on the syllabus and concoct slow, deliberate reading exercises for students to complete, the more they will inculcate the habit.”

complex text requires
Complex Text Requires
  • Time
  • Teacher support/scaffolding
  • Deliberate Reading Assignments
  • Students (and teachers) need to be taught how to access digital texts
  • Teachers need to hold students accountable to reading complex texts

(Do you know how to access materials through your school’s library home page? Through the state’s LiLI homepage?)

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