Taxonomy of you review
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Taxonomy of YOU Review. Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata Subphylum : Vertebrata Your Class : Mammalia Cousins Classe s: Agnatha Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves. Taxonomy of YOU. Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata. All Subphyla have a common ancestor.

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Taxonomy of YOU Review.

  • Kingdom: Animalia

    • Phylum: Chordata

      • Subphylum: Vertebrata

        • Your Class: Mammalia

        • Cousins Classes:

          • Agnatha

          • Chondrichthyes

          • Osteichthyes

          • Amphibia

          • Reptilia

          • Aves


Taxonomy of YOU.

  • Kingdom: Animalia

    • Phylum: Chordata. All Subphyla have a common ancestor.

      • Subphylum: Urochordata

      • Subphylum: Cephalochordata

      • Subphylum: Vertebrata


Phylum: Chordata

Notocord

Dorsal hollow nerve cord

Gills

Postanal tail


Subphylum Urochordata: a tunicate or “sea squirt”


nerve cord

notochord

gut

oral opening

atrial opening (water that passed through pharynx leaves this way)

pharynx with gill slits


Subphylum Cephalochordata: the lancelet Branchiostoma


DORSAL, TUBULAR NERVE CORD

PHARYNX WITH GILL SLITS

TAIL EXTENDING PAST ANUS

NOTOCHORD

aorta

anus

epidermis

pore of atrial cavity

gonad

hindgut

segmented muscles

tentacles around mouth

midgut

segmented muscles

Fig. 27.4, p. 457


Early fossil vertebrates: Haikouella (top), Myllokunmingia (bottom)


A snake skeleton exhibits defining characteristics of the phylum vertebrata


Agnathans

Traits

  • Ectothermic

  • No true teeth (Adonts)

  • Oviparous

  • External Fertilization

  • Gills

  • 2 chambered heart

  • No scales

  • Paired fins

  • No jaw present

  • Lateral Line System

  • Cartilage skeleton

    Examples of organisms: lamprey and hagfish


A hagfish


Tentacles

Gill slits (twelve pairs)

Mucous glands

Gill openings (seven pairs)

Fig. 27.7, p. 459


A sea lamprey


Chondrichthyes

Traits

  • Ectothermic

  • Homodont

  • Viviparous, Oviparous, Ovoviviparous

  • Internal Fertilization

  • Gills

  • 2 chambered heart

  • Placoid scales

  • Paired fins

  • Jaw present

  • Lateral Line System

  • Cartilage skeleton

    Examples of organisms: SHARKS, RAYS, SKATES, CHIMAERAS


Cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes): Great white shark (top left), silky shark (top right), southern stingray (bottom left), blue spotted stingray (bottom right)


Fig. 27.8, p. 460


Osteichthyes

Traits

  • Ectothermic

  • Homodont

  • Oviparous

  • External Fertilization

  • Gills

  • Swim Bladder

  • 2 chambered heart

  • No scales

  • Paired fins

  • Jaw present

  • Bony skeleton

    Examples of organisms: Ray-finned fishes and Lobe-finned fishes


dorsal fin

caudal fin

muscle segments

fin supports

brain

anal fin

olfactory bulb

pectoral fin (one of two)

pelvic fin (one of two)

heart

liver

anus

gallbladder

urinary bladder

kidney

stomach

swim bladder

intestine

Fig. 27.9, p. 461


Ray-finned fishes (class Actinopterygii): yellow perch


Ray-finned fishes (class Actinopterygii): long-snouted sea horse


Anatomy of a trout, a representative ray-finned fish


A coelocanth (Latimeria), the only extant lobe-finned genus


Amphibians

Traits

  • Ectothermic

  • Homodont

  • Oviparous

  • External Fertilization

  • Lungs, Skin, and Gills

  • 3 chambered heart

  • No scales

  • Tetrapedal

  • Jaw present

  • Bony skeleton

    Examples of organisms: TOADS/FROGS, SALAMANDERS/NEWTS, CAECILLIANS


Amphibian orders: Newt (left), frog (right)


Frogs


Fig. 27.12, p. 463


“Dual life” of a frog (Rana temporaria)


Amniotes

  • Produce eggs with membranes


Reptilia

Traits

  • Ectothermic

  • Homodont

  • Oviparous, rare instances of vivipary

  • Internal Fertilization

  • Lungs

  • 4 chambered Heart/3chambered heart

  • scales

  • Tetrapedal

  • Jaw present

  • Bony skeleton

    Examples of organisms:

    TURTLES/TORTOISES, SNAKES, LIZARDS/ LEGLESSLIZARDS /TUATARAS, CROCODILES/ALLIGATORS


A hatching monitor lizard


olfactory lobe (sense of smell)

vertebral column

gonad

spinal cord

forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain regions

kidney

snout

intestine

heart

unmatched rows of teeth on upper and lower jaws

stomach

cloaca

esophagus

liver


Extant reptiles: Desert tortoise (top left), lizard (top right), king snake (bottom left), alligators (bottom right)


venom gland

hollow fang

Fig. 27.15, p. 466


Sea turtle


ribs of endoskeleton

hard shell


Banded gecko, Coleonyx varigatus


Emerald tree boa


Aves

Traits

  • Homeothermic

  • No true teeth

  • Oviparous

  • Internal Fertilization

  • Lungs with air sacs

  • 4 chambered Heart

  • Modified scales: feathers

  • bipedal

  • Jaw present

  • Bony skeleton: porous

    Examples of organisms: WATERFOWL, PEAFOWL, FLIGHTLESS, RAPTORS, ETC


Fig. 27.16b, p. 468


A small sample of birds: Blue-footed boobies (top left), male peacock (top right), penguins (bottom left), perching bird (bottom right)


Penguin march


Mammalia

Traits

  • Homeothermic

  • Heterodonts

  • Oviparous or viviparous

  • Internal Fertilization

  • Lungs

  • 4 chambered Heart

  • Mammary glands (milk production)

  • Modified scales: hair

  • Tetrapedal with minor exceptions of bipedalism

  • Jaw present

  • Bony skeleton

    Examples of organisms


Rodents

Scaly anteaters

Anteaters

Manatees

Cetaceans

(whales, dolphins and porpoises)

Elephants

Carnivores


Monotremes

Even-toed ungulates

Primates

Chiropterans (Bats)

marsupials


Name That Class

  • Oviparous

  • No jaw

  • Ectothermic.

  • External fertilization and lungs

  • Viviparous or oviparous

  • No scales and 2 chambered heart

  • 4 chambered heart and oviparous

  • Heterodont

  • Examples of Amphibian groups.

  • 2 examples of Chondrichthyans.


Name That Class

  • Oviparous: All

  • No jaw: Agnatha

  • Ectothermic: All except Aves and Mammalia.

  • External fertilization and lungs: Amphibia

  • Viviparous or oviparous: Mammalia, Reptilia

  • No scales and 2 chambered heart: Agnatha

  • 4 chambered heart and oviparous: Aves, Reptilia, Mammalia

  • Heterodonts: Mammalia

  • Amphibians: Frogs, Toads, Salamanders, Newts or Caecillians

  • 2 examples of Chondrichthyes. Sharks, Rays, Skates


Phylogeny of the major groups of extant vertebrates


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