Understanding Pesticide Exposure. Increasing Applicator Protection. HAZARD = EXPOSURE x TOXICITY. Exposure - How pesticides enter the body. Toxicity - The potential of a chemical to be poisonous. Parts of the body absorb pesticides at different rates
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enter the body
The potential of a chemical to be poisonous
The head is 4 times more absorbent than the hand
The genital area is 11 times more absorbent
Eyes4 Methods of Exposure
Hands and forearms are most common
97% of all pesticide exposures are dermalDermal Exposure
Reduce exposure 90+%
Should be unlined
Chemically resistant NOT leather or clothDermal Exposure
Remove contaminated clothing
Wash with plenty of soap and waterDermal Exposure
Mostly occurs because of improper storageOral Exposure
Pesticides removed from their original containers are the highest cause of pesticide poisonings in adults and children.
Victim is unconscious or is having convulsions highest cause of pesticide poisonings in adults and children.
Petroleum based product
Label specifies NOT to induce vomitingOral Exposure
More common when using fine dusts and mists highest cause of pesticide poisonings in adults and children.
Mixing and loading concentrates
Lung exposure is the fastest way to the bloodstreamInhalation Exposure
Use respiratory protection as directed by the label highest cause of pesticide poisonings in adults and children.Inhalation Exposure
Ensure proper highest cause of pesticide poisonings in adults and children.
allow for a
good fitInhalation Exposure
Remove person to fresh air highest cause of pesticide poisonings in adults and children.
Loosen tight clothing
Keep air passages clear
Perform artificial respiration if necessaryInhalation Exposure
More common when mixing highest cause of pesticide poisonings in adults and children.
When the potential for splashing existsEye exposure
Especially when mixing concentratesEye exposure
Get medical attention if there is pain or reddening of the eyeEye exposure
Act immediately! splash exists
Rinse with clean water
Read and follow label directions!
See a doctor and bring the pesticide labelFirst Aid Summary
The potential of a chemical to be poisonous.
Acute Toxicity splash exists
Dermal splash exists - skin irritation, itching reddening
Oral - nausea, muscle twitching, sweating, weakness
Inhalation - burning of throat and lungs, coughing
Eye - temporary or permanent irritation or blindnessAcute Toxicity - Symptoms
LD50 and LC50
HIGHER LD50/LC50 => less toxic
LOWER LD50/LC50 => more toxic
Cancer splash exists
Infertility or sterility
Blood Disorders (anemia, inability to clot)
Kidney problemsChronic Toxicity Can Cause
chemicals that have
potential to cause
long-term effects can
greatly increase the risk
of chronic adverse effects.
The nervous system of insects and humans have common characteristics.
cause acute poisoning
in the body leading to poisoning
Exposure interferes with an important nervous system enzyme, cholinesterase
Causing nerves to continuously
send messages to the muscles
Causes twitching, convulsions, seizures, and possibly deathOrganophosphates (OP)
Mild cholinesterase - headache, fatigue, dizziness
unable to walk,
Severe - unconscious, seizures, deathSymptoms of OP and Carbamate Poisoning
Consult your doctor cholinesterase
Monitor changes in cholinesterase levels by
Get off season base linetest in January or February followed by periodic testing during the seasonCholinesterase Test Program
Anything that causes allergies cholinesterase
Need more than 1 exposure to the product
After the 1st exposure, the body develops a negative response
When exposed again, the body responses negatively = allergic reactionAllergens
Trigger an asthma attack cholinesterase
Cause rashes, blisters, contact dermatitis
Cause itchy, watery eyes, sneezingAllergies can
Pupils of a heat stress victim
Pupils of an OP pesticide poisoning
victim are pinpoint (constricted)
avoid a pesticide
poisoning is to protect
yourself by reading the label and wearing personal protective equipment.
HAZARD = EXPOSURE x TOXICITY
Kerry H. Richards, PhD, Sharon I. Gripp, and Richard J. Johnson, of The Pennsylvania State University, Pesticide Education Program.
Portions of this presentation were adapted from a program developed by Michigan State University. Applicator exposure slides courtesy of University of Illinois.
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Revised on November 4, 2002