Methods of monitoring pollution
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Methods of Monitoring Pollution. Direct. Performed by monitoring the level of the pollutant itself Nitrates in a lake Temperature in a stream. Direct measurements. Measuring temperature in several locations along the length of a river or at different times of the year

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Methods of Monitoring Pollution

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Methods of monitoring pollution

Methods of Monitoring Pollution


Direct

Direct

  • Performed by monitoring the level of the pollutant itself

    • Nitrates in a lake

    • Temperature in a stream


Direct measurements

Direct measurements

  • Measuring temperature in several locations along the length of a river or at different times of the year

    • Take a baseline measurement and then monitor systematically to determine changes

  • Measuring nitrate levels/ammonia levels/ chloride levels as an indication of nutrient overload

  • Measuring TSS or TDS as an indication of material entering the lake or stream


Indirect

Indirect

  • Monitor the effects of the pollutants on other factors

    • Dissolved oxygen

    • BOD

    • Presence or absence of indicator species


Methods of monitoring pollution

BOD

  • The measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen that is used by aerobic bacteria to break down the organic matter in a specific volume of water.

  • The greater the organic matter (sewage, agricultural run-off, fertilizer, etc.) the higher the BOD


More bod

More BOD

  • If DO equals or exceeds the BOD, the system is considered healthy

  • If DO level is less than BOD, it is possible that there is not enough oxygen to sustain larger organisms like fish.

  • The process of accumulating large amount of organic matter is called eutrophication


Measuring bod

Measuring BOD

  • Measure DO on day 1

  • again on Day 5

  • samples should be kept at 20oC in the dark during that time


Factors controlling bod and do

Factors Controlling BOD and DO

  • A major source of DO comes from the atmosphere

  • Moving water is able to dissolve more oxygen

  • Temperature is a major factor

  • BOD is affected by respiration or lack there of by microorganisms and by increase in organic matter, waste and sewage


Biotic index

Biotic index

  • Indirect measurement involves monitoring and measurement of organisms in the ecosystem

    • Indicator or index species

    • Species by their abundance or absence indicate the level of pollution in an ecosystem

  • The diversity of species can indicate the quality and overall health of the system


Important indicators

Important indicators

  • Fish

  • Bottom fauna

  • Algae

  • Bacteria

  • Comparing the relative abundance of stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies to midge and sludgeworms

  • Comparison of diatoms to blue-green algae

  • Measuring coliform levels can indicate the presence of sewage dumping in the ecosystem

  • Overall diversity of the system is the best indicator - presence is better than absence


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