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Heifer Raising. Lecture 11 ANS 336 2/21/01. Once A Day Feeding - Milk. Reduces labor? Reduces scours Promotes faster rumen development When a calf drinks milk it forms a curd in the fourth stomach then takes approximately 3-4 hours to totally leave

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Heifer raising

Heifer Raising

Lecture 11

ANS 336


Once a day feeding milk
Once A Day Feeding - Milk

  • Reduces labor?

  • Reduces scours

  • Promotes faster rumen development

  • When a calf drinks milk it forms a curd in the fourth stomach then takes approximately 3-4 hours to totally leave

  • Milk replacer forms a harder curd and it takes 18 hours to leave the fourth stomach.

    • If fed twice daily - new milk is mixed with the previous curd

Once a day
Once A Day

  • Acid content of the stomach is the main weapon against bacteria

  • If pH is > than 4.2 bacteria such as E.Coli will survive and grow. Below 4.2 the bacteria is physically killed.

  • Normal pH of the fourth stomach is 2.

  • When milk is drank the pH rises to 6 and takes up to 3 hours to drop below 4.2.

  • Twice a day exposes the calf to high pH twice a day. E Coli thrives and is the major cause of calf deaths.

Once a day1
Once A Day

  • To reduce cost of raising calves, we must convert from the high cost, high risk and labor intensive phase to an efficient ruminant.

  • Must eat dry matter as early as possible.

  • By condensing all the dry matter into one low volume feed – whole milk will not work.

  • Over a 10-14 day period of time the animal can be converted to getting 500 grams of milk replacer in 2 qts of water. Normal feedings require 200 grams.

  • The single low volume of feed is digested slowly but leaves the calf feeling hungry therefore starts on starter grain earlier.

Once a day2
Once A Day

  • To raise a calf on whole milk or milk replacer cost about $ 4.00 per kg of gain.

  • Once weaned it cost about $.70/ kg of gain.

  • Milk feeding of calves does not assist rumen development.

  • Calves can be weaned at 30-35 days of age once consuming 1 lb of good calf starter.

  • However, starter should contain 20% Protein. Provide clean cereal straw which is low in nutrient content and poor taste to provide roughage.

  • Good tasting Alfalfa or pasture will encourage consumption which can not be utilized at this stage.

  • Requires excellent management.

Nutrient requirements nrc 1989 at 1 7 lb day gain large breed
Nutrient Requirements- NRC 1989At 1.7 lb/day gain Large Breed

Nutrient Requirements- NRC 1999At 1.7 lb/day gain Large Breed

Nutrient terminology


CP includes NPN and True Protein

CP used as Ruminants utilization about the same.

N Content X 6.25 as not all the nitrogen is in the form of protein.

DP - digestible Protein

Amount consume minus the amount in feces.

AP - apparent digestibility

Part of the protein comes from the animal.


DE digestible energy

ME – Metabolizable energy


NEm – net energy Maintenance

Neg - Net energy gain

Nel - Net energy lactation

Nutrient Terminology

Nutrient terminology changes nrc

Old - 1989

UIP – Undegradable Intake Protein

DIP – degradable intake Protein

MCP- Microbial Protein

BCP Bacterial Protein

New – 2000

RUP – Rumen Undegradable Protein

RDP – Rumen degradable Protein

MP – Metabolizable Protein

True protein absorbed from the intestine (MCP –RUP)

Nutrient Terminology Changes - NRC

Dry Matter Intake

DMI = BW (2%) + .33 FCM

FCM = (lbs of milk X .4) + (lbs of milk X % Bfat) 15

Maximum Ration NDF = 1.2% of BW

Forage NDF = 0.9 % of BW

Conc. NDF = 0.3 % BW

Must provide: 28 to 30 % of the Total Ration in NDF

19 to 21 % of the Total Ration in ADF