Solids
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Solids. Substitutional. Interstitial. Metallic Crystals Alloys – mixtures of metals – done to strengthen or make a metal less brittle or subject to oxidation. 2 types Substitutional – when metal atoms are of similar size

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Solids
Solids

Substitutional

Interstitial

  • Metallic Crystals

    • Alloys – mixtures of metals – done to strengthen or make a metal less brittle or subject to oxidation.

    • 2 types

      • Substitutional – when metal atoms are of similar size

      • Interstitial – when one atom is smaller than the other, fills in the spaces between the larger ones


Solids1
Solids

  • Metallic crystals

    • Substitutional alloy

      • Silver alloyed with gold, replace one set of attractive forces with an almost equal set of attractive forces with the added metal.

        • Result: alloy has properties that tend to fall somewhere between the two separate metals


Solids2
Solids

  • Metallic crystals

    • Interstitial alloys

      • Incorporate one atom into the existing structure with little change in volume- results in increased density

      • Increases total attractive forces in the alloy

      • Usually stronger and harder than original materials


Solids3
Solids

  • Ionic Crystals

    • Attraction of a cation and an anion is the strongest attractive force known in chemistry.

      • Alternating positive & negative ions

    • Almost all ionic compounds are solids with rigid crystal structures (lattices)

    • Take a large amount of lattice energy to separate the ions!


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