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Solids. Substitutional. Interstitial. Metallic Crystals Alloys – mixtures of metals – done to strengthen or make a metal less brittle or subject to oxidation. 2 types Substitutional – when metal atoms are of similar size

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solids
Solids

Substitutional

Interstitial

  • Metallic Crystals
    • Alloys – mixtures of metals – done to strengthen or make a metal less brittle or subject to oxidation.
    • 2 types
      • Substitutional – when metal atoms are of similar size
      • Interstitial – when one atom is smaller than the other, fills in the spaces between the larger ones
solids1
Solids
  • Metallic crystals
    • Substitutional alloy
      • Silver alloyed with gold, replace one set of attractive forces with an almost equal set of attractive forces with the added metal.
        • Result: alloy has properties that tend to fall somewhere between the two separate metals
solids2
Solids
  • Metallic crystals
    • Interstitial alloys
      • Incorporate one atom into the existing structure with little change in volume- results in increased density
      • Increases total attractive forces in the alloy
      • Usually stronger and harder than original materials
solids3
Solids
  • Ionic Crystals
    • Attraction of a cation and an anion is the strongest attractive force known in chemistry.
      • Alternating positive & negative ions
    • Almost all ionic compounds are solids with rigid crystal structures (lattices)
    • Take a large amount of lattice energy to separate the ions!
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