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Black Holes in    Deep Surveys. Meg Urry Yale University. The formation and evolution of galaxies is closely tied to the growth of black holes.  Cosmic accretion (AGN) important for galaxy formation for black hole physics for understanding ionization, backgrounds, etc.

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Black holes in deep surveys

Black Holes in Deep Surveys

Meg Urry

Yale University


The formation and evolution of galaxies

is closely tied to

the growth of black holes

  •  Cosmic accretion (AGN) important

    • for galaxy formation

    • for black hole physics

    • for understanding ionization, backgrounds, etc.


Cosmic accretion
Cosmic Accretion

  • Opticallyselected quasars not representative, do not fairly sample cosmic accretion

  • Need less biased surveys


  • Supermassive black holeslikelyobscuredby gas and dust:

  • Local AGN Unification

  • More likely in early Universe (“Grand Unification”)

  • Explains hard X-ray “background”


  • Supermassive black holeslikelyobscuredby gas and dust:

  • Local AGN Unification

  • More likely in early Universe (“Grand Unification”)

  • Explains hard X-ray “background”


  • Supermassive black holeslikelyobscuredby gas and dust:

  • Local AGN Unification

  • More likely in early Universe (“Grand Unification”)

  • Explains hard X-ray “background”


X-Ray “background” spectrum (superposition of unresolved AGN)is very hard

Courtesy Brusa, Comastri, Gilli, Hasinger



Deep surveys for obscured accretion
Deep Surveys for Obscured Accretion

  • Hard X-rays penetrate most obscuration

  • Energy re-radiated in infrared

  • High resolution optical separates host galaxy


Chandra

HST

Spitzer


Goods

GOODS

Survey

Deep

Origins

Observatories

Great


Goods1

GOODS

designed to find

obscured AGN out to

the quasar epoch, z2-3

Spitzer Legacy, HST Treasury, Chandra Deep Fields

Dickinson, Giavalisco, Giacconi, Garmire


MUSYC

Chile

Yale &

Survey by

MUltiwavelength

Gawiser, van Dokkum, CMU, Lira, Maza


Extended chandra deep field south
Extended Chandra Deep Field South

Do GOODS/MUSYC/surveys reveal hidden populations of obscured AGN?

Virani et al. 2006, Lehmer et al. 2006




Understanding agn demographics quantitatively
Understanding AGN Demographics Quantitatively

  • Model X-ray spectrum

  • constrain N(L,z,NH) w XRBG spectrum, N(Sx), N(z)

OR

  • Model full SED

  • constrain N(L,z,NH) w XRBG spectrum, N(Sx), N(z), plus N(Sopt), N(SIR), …

    Also, can assess selection effects in any filter or spectroscopy


Createensemble ofAGN, with continuous range of obscuration, correct SEDs for Unification (model),known luminosity distribution, known cosmic evolution

Generate expected survey content at X-ray, Optical, Infrared, or any wavelengths,as function of flux and redshift

Compare to dataGOODS, MUSYC,SEXSI, SWIRE, CLASXS, H2XMM, AMSS, GROTH, Lockman, Champ, …


Assumptions

HardX-ray LF & LDDE evolutionfor Type 1 AGN Ueda et al. 2003

Grid ofAGN spectra (LX,NH) with

SDSS quasar spectrum (normalized to X-ray)

dust/gas absorption (optical/UV/soft X-ray)

infrared dust emission Nenkova et al. 2002, Elitzur et al. 2003

L* host galaxy

NH distribution corresponding to torus geometry (matches obs)

obscured AGN = 3 x unobscured (matches local obs)

No dependence on z (for now)

Simple linear dependence on luminosity (matches obs)

Assumptions

Ezequiel Treister, CMU, Jeffrey van Duyne, Brooke Simmons, Eleni Chatzichristou (Yale U.), David Alexander, Franz Bauer, Niel Brandt (Penn State U.), Anton Koekemoer, Leonidas Moustakas (STScI), Jacqueline Bergeron (IAP), Ranga-Ram Chary (SSC), Christopher Conselice (Caltech), Stefano Cristiani (Padova), Norman Grogin (JHU) 2004,ApJ, 616, 123

Also Treister et al. 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2007


Dust emission models from Nenkova et al. 2002, Elitzur et al. 2003

  • Simplest dust distribution that satisfies

    • NH = 1020 – 1024 cm-2

    • 3:1 ratio (divided at 1022 cm-2)

  • Random angles  NH distribution




Results
Results al. 2003

  • Match optical counts, N(z)

    • 50% AGN not in CDFs

  • MatchX-ray background

  • MatchIR counts

    • AGN are low % of IR EBL

  • Integral & Swift surveys for Compton-thick AGN

    • Number of Compton-thick AGN may be lower than assumed

    • Gives limit on reflection, accretion efficiency

  • Meta-analysis  obs/unobs ratio increases with z


GOODS N+S al. 2003

Treister et al. 2004


redshifts of Chandra deep X-ray sources al. 2003

GOODS-N

Treister et al. 2004

Barger et al. 2002,3, Hasinger et al. 2002, Szokoly et al. 2004


redshifts of Chandra deep X-ray sources al. 2003

GOODS-N

Treister et al. 2004

Barger et al. 2002,3, Hasinger et al. 2002, Szokoly et al. 2004


Results1
Results al. 2003

  • Match optical counts, N(z)

    • 50% AGN not in CDFs

  • Match X-ray background

  • MatchIR counts

    • AGN are low % of IR EBL

  • Integral & Swift surveys for Compton-thick AGN

    • Number of Compton-thick AGN may be lower than assumed

    • Gives limit on reflection, accretion efficiency

  • Meta-analysis  obs/unobs ratio increases with z


X-ray background synthesis al. 2003

Treister et al. 2005


X-ray background synthesis al. 2003

Treister et al. 2005


X-ray background synthesis al. 2003

Treister et al. 2005


Results2
Results al. 2003

  • Match optical counts, N(z)

    • 50% AGN not in CDFs

  • MatchX-ray background

  • Match IR counts

    • AGN are low % of IR EBL

  • Integral & Swift surveys for Compton-thick AGN

    • Number of Compton-thick AGN may be lower than assumed

    • Gives limit on reflection, accretion efficiency

  • Meta-analysis  obs/unobs ratio increases with z


Near & mid-IR Spitzer counts al. 2003

Treister et al. 2005


Infrared background
Infrared “Background” al. 2003

Total AGN contribution to EBL <10%

Treister et al. 2005


Results3
Results al. 2003

  • Match optical counts, N(z)

    • 50% AGN not in CDFs

  • MatchX-ray background

  • MatchIR counts

    • AGN are low % of IR EBL

  • Integral & Swift surveys for Compton-thick AGN

    • Number of Compton-thick AGN may be lower than assumed

    • Gives limit on reflection, accretion efficiency

  • Meta-analysis  obs/unobs ratio increases with z


X ray background spectrum
X-Ray “Background” Spectrum al. 2003

100

60

40

20

10

6

4

E F(E) [keV2 cm2 s1 keV1 str1]

  • 5 10 50 100 500

Energy (keV)

Treister & Urry 2005


10 al. 2003

1

Treister et al. (2007)

3

1

# of Compton Thick AGN

Integral & SWIRE

1

3

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Normalization of Reflection Component


10 al. 2003

8

6

4

2

Treister et al. (2007)

Local Black Hole Mass Density (105 Mo Mpc3)

Marconi et al. (2004)

Shankar et al. (2004)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Normalization of Reflection Component


Results4
Results al. 2003

  • Match optical counts, N(z)

    • 50% AGN not in CDFs

  • MatchX-ray background

  • MatchIR counts

    • low AGN % of IR EBL

  • Integral & Swift surveys for Compton-thick AGN

    • Number of Compton-thick AGN may be lower than assumed

    • Gives limit on reflection, accretion efficiency

  • Meta-analysis obs/unobs ratio increases with z


7 surveys al. 2003

2341 AGN

1229 with z

BL=unobscured

NL=obscured

Area as function of X-ray flux & optical mag

Treister & Urry 2006b




Black hole accretion
Black Hole Accretion al. 2003

  • Obscured AGN dominate at 0<z<2

    • Obscuration decreases w luminosity

    • Obscuration increases w redshift

    • Explains X-ray “background” &  surveys

    • True z-distr does peak at z>1 (incomplete spectra)

  • Limits on Compton Thick AGNintegral, swift, spitzer

    • High degree of Compton reflection

      • to match observed low #s of CT AGN

      • to avoid overproducing local BH density

  • Total bolometric AGN light < 10% of extragalactic light (mostly stars)

  • Compare to local BH mass

    • efficiency of accretion, 0.1-0.2, where =L/mc2


Carie Cardamone al. 2003Shanil ViraniJeff van DuyneBrooke SimmonsEzequiel Treister (PhD 2005) Jonghak Woo (PhD 2005)Matt O’Dowd (PhD 2004)Yasunobu UchiyamaEleni Chatzichristou

Graduate students:

Postdocs:


Luminosity dependent density evolution
Luminosity-dependent density evolution al. 2003

1042-3 ergs/s

1043-4 ergs/s

1044-5 ergs/s

1045-6 ergs/s

>1046 ergs/s

Hasinger et al. 2005


Agn seds in goods
AGN SEDs in GOODS al. 2003

Objects with hard (absorbed) X-ray spectra:

(weak) AGNor galaxy in optical

luminous thermal infrared emission

Van Duyne et al. 2007





Host galaxy morphologies al. 2003

Direct view of galaxy formation

Simmons et al. 2007


Deep Integral Survey of the XMM-LSS region al. 2003

300 ksec of our 2 Msec Integral

Treister et al. 2007


Deep Integral Survey of the Greater XMM-LSS region al. 2003

1 Compton-Thick AGN

in 150 deg2

1 Msec Integral (300 ksec of our 2 Msec)


Hard x ray counts
Hard X-ray Counts al. 2003

0.1

0.01

103

104

105

N(>S) [deg2]

Integral

1012 1011 1010 109

F(20-40 keV) [erg cm2 s 1]

Treister et al. (2007)


Exo extreme x ray to optical agn
“EXO” al. 2003Extreme X-ray-to-Optical AGN

BVR BVR

R-K = 7.88

Blue Green Red Composite optical

Z J K

X-ray

Redder Near-IR Reddest Near-IR

KAB = 21.4

  • very high redshift AGN with z > 6, or

  • very obscured AGN w old/dusty host galaxies at z~2

ECDFS ID: 29



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